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Bailey MacNab

on 1 April 2015

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Transcript of Sports

The measures
Research Questions:
Literature Review
Tuesday, March 31, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Relationships among Athletic and Academic Identity and Self-Efficacy in Student- Athletes
Participants and Setting/Procedure
The Method:
There has been unprecedented revenue growth over the past decade in collegiate sports (especially football and basketball) and the popularity of collegiate sports is growing daily (Chemi, 2013).
According to a study by Adler & Adler (1985) the academic experience of the student-athlete is often compromised due to the athletic demands placed on the student.
According to a study of 20,000 current athletes from 611 institutions on how student-athletes spend their time, on average, over 40 hrs are spent on athletics, while some spend less than 30 per week on academics (Moltz, 2011)
Study shows gaps in SAT Scores, especially for football and basketball student-athletes (Go, 2008)
These facts indicate a need to explore student-athlete identity and how it may relate to self-efficacy so that individuals working with student-athletes can potentially shape the identity of these students and put them in a better position to succeed.
The purpose: to explore the relationship between academic identity, athletic identity, academic self-efficacy, and athletic self-efficacy
103 student-athletes (20.6% of the 500 student-athletes)
All teams at this university except gymnastics and golf
60.2% were male, 49.8% female
Justification and Purpose for the Research:
RQ1: What levels of student-athlete academic identity, athletic identity, academic self-efficacy, and athletic self-efficacy do college students at a large Division I school in the Southeast Conference possess?
RQ2: Is there a relationship between student-athlete identity and athletic and academic self-efficacy?
RQ3: Is academic self-efficacy positively related to academic performance? Is academic or athletic identity related to academic performance?
RQ4: What are some of the factors that influence student-athlete identity and self-efficacy?
RQ5: Which demographics impact correlations between the four measures?

43.7% white, 2% Hispanic/Latino, 47% African American, 1% Native American, 6% Other
The study took place in the Cox Communications Center for Student-Athletes
Data collection took place over a 2 week period in Feb. 2015
Oral and written directions were provided, letter of consent explained to and signed by all participants
Survey packet consisted of 3 scales; took approximately 10 minutes or less to complete
Data collected, interscorer reliability performed, data analyzed using SPSS
Limitations and Future Research:
Future Research
Athletic Identity
Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) developed by Brewer, Van Raalte and Linder (1993) to measure extent to which student-athlete identifies with athletic role; findings that AIMS is reliable and valid measure of athletic identity; results of study indicated strength and exclusivity of identification with the athletic role.
Subsequent studies have used the AIMS to explore athletic identity and its relation to other constructs (Mignano, Brewer, Winter & Van Raalte, 2006; Bimper, 2014; Burns, Jasinski, Dunn & Fletcher, 2012; Feltz, Schneider, Hwuang & Skogsberg, 2013; Sturm, Feltz & Gilson, 2011; Lamont-Mills & Christensen, 2006
Academic Identity
The Measure of Student Identity (MSI) Nancy Shields (1995) developed scale to measure academic identity; questions were 15 Likert-type items developed from exploratory interviews with students about what it means to be a student. Used criteria established in prior studies (Reitze, 1981; White, 1988) to be part of student identity; found that student identity was related to aspects of self-esteem
Other scales developed since which measure Academic Identity (Osborne, 1997; Was & Isaacson, 2008)
MSI is most commonly used
Academic Athletic Identity
One study has looked at both athletic ID
academic ID of Student-athletes: (Sturm, Feltz, & Gilson, 2011); used AIMS & MSI to explore athlete and student identities of DI and DIII student-athletes; findings showed no differences in ID based on division level, or year in school. Found differences for gender-females had higher student identity
In 2014 Yukhymenko-Lescroart developed the Academic Athletic Identity Scale (abbreviated to AAIS) which is a combination of student ID and athlete ID questions to form one reliable, valid measure of student-athlete identity
Academic Self-Efficacy
Widely researched; many scales to measure it at different levels
Self-efficacy influences academic performance (Andrew, 1998; Bouffard-Bouchard, 2001; Elias & MacDonald, 2007) & differs based on demographic factor of race & gender (Mattern & Shaw, 2010)
Owen & Froman (1988) developed reliable & valid scale to measure College Academic Self-Efficacy (abbreviated to CASES)
Other scales to measure academic SE, but this one chosen because it was developed specifically for college students
Athletic Self-Efficacy
Again, more widely researched; many different scales to measure it
Feltz, Short and Sullivan (2002), found that it affects performance and achievement in athletics
A meta-analysis of studies focusing on relationship between self-efficacy and athletic performance determined average correlation between self-efficacy and performance to be .38 (Moritz, Feltz, Fahrbach & Mack, 2000)
Shelangoski, Hambrick, Gross and Weber (2014) developed measure to test athletic self-efficacy of student-athletes (abbreviated to ATHSE); Findings showed student-athletes had high levels of self-efficacy. Gender and Class-status interaction effected SE.
Self-efficacy = “one’s perceived capabilities for learning or performing actions at designated levels” (Schunk, Meece & Pintrick, 2014, p. 379)
Bandura, 1977; Theory in motivational education
11 Items; 2 subscales (Academic ID and Athletic ID)
Valid and reliable (retested by me)
Students asked to rate items on a scale of 1-6, 1 being "not central to my sense of self" and 6 being "very central to my sense of self"
Items 1-5 are academically related (e.g. "Having a high GPA"; "Being satisfied with my academic work"
Items 6-11 are athletically related (e.g. "Being a capable athlete" or "Being athletic")
This was the first scale created to measure both academic and athletic identity at once. It was chosen because neither the AIMS nor MSI had exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis reported; thus Yukhymenko developed short, reliable, valid measure of SA academic and athletic ID.
33 Item Likert scale; asked to rate items on scale of A-E, A indicating that the student has a lot of confidence on a task and E indicating that the student has little confidence on it.
Examples of items: "Taking well organized notes during a lecture" and "Applying lecture content to a laboratory session"
Used in other studies; proven valid and reliable, used by other researchers
Brief, designed specifically for college students
15 item Likert scale of 0-100, with 0 indicating "Almost certain I cannot do it" and 100 "Certain I can do it"
Included items like "Execute the skills necessary to be successful in my sport" and "Make critical decisions during a competition"
Valid and reliable (retested by me; discuss factorial analysis)
Designed to measure three areas of SE (General, State, Trait) and "overall" SE...I was concerned with overall SE
Concise measure; designed specifically for collegiate athletes
RQ1: What levels of student-athlete academic identity, athletic identity, academic self-efficacy, and athletic self-efficacy do college students at a large Division I school in the Southeast Conference possess?

RQ1: Student-athletes in this study had high levels of academic ID, athletic ID, academic SE & athletic SE: potential reasons
RQ2: Academic and Athletic ID were positively related (did not agree with prior research [Sturm, Feltz & Gilson, 2011] that says as athletic ID increases, academic ID decreases); Academic ID and Academic SE positively related; Athletic ID and Athletic SE positively related; implications?
RQ3: Confirmed that SE is related to performance (Andrew, 1998; Bouffard-Brouchard, 2001; Mattern & Shaw, 2010; Schunk et.al, 2014)
RQ4: Factors that influence these levels of ID and SE? Needs more investigation; few main effects or interactions; Finding that race had effect on Academic ID warrants further research.
RQ5: Some factors resulted in stronger correlations between scales: gender, race, sport, year in school; each group showed differences; size of groups makes it difficult to draw conclusions, but these show that more investigation is needed.
Self report measures
Diversity of sample
confirm that there is a relationship between ID and SE
Further investigation of factors that impact SE/ID
"Why study the relationship between the two?"
Nobody has done this before!
If there is a relationship, we can better address a deficit in one area by manipulating ID or SE
Bolstering SE could help shape ID, which could potentially put SA's in a better place upon graduation
Strength of ID has impacts on happiness/well-being (Killeya & Jones, 2005; Lally & Kerr, 2005), career decision making (Cabrita et.al., 2014) & identity foreclosure (Beamon, 2012).
RQ5: Which demographics impact correlations between the four measures?
Some differences based on demographics were:
RQ2: Is there a relationship between student-athlete identity and athletic and academic self-efficacy?

RQ3: Is academic self-efficacy positively related to academic performance? Is identity related to performance?
Academic SE & Academic Performance (GPA): .262**
Academic ID and Academic Performance: .198*
RQ4: What are some of the factors that influence student-athlete identity and self-efficacy?
Effects on Academic ID mean:
Differences between African American & Other
Differences between White & Other

Effects on Academic SE mean:
Interaction between race and years in school (p = .049)
Difference in means on the dependent variable for race, dependent on one’s year in school (and vice versa), on years in school, dependent on one’s race (Post hoc-between freshmen & sophomore yr.)
academic ID and academic SE=.322
academic ID and athletic SE of .340.
academic ID and academic SE=.418,
athletic ID and academic SE=-.350
Track and Field
: academic ID and athletic ID=.815
: academic ID and academic SE=.475 athletic ID and athletic SE=.367
academic ID and athletic ID.513
African American:
academic ID and athletic SE=.359
athletic ID and athletic SE =.420
: academic ID and athletic ID =.855
: academic ID and athletic SE=.704
athletic ID and athletic SE=.471.
Thank you!!!
Thank you for your help and continued support on this project!
Full transcript