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Transcript of Plan Composition
A plan to be worth of the name, must be "organic". All parts must fit together in such a way that the composition will be disturbed if one element is moved. The axial arrangement of the plan should connect to various units so that one feels the complete organization of all the component parts. A plan is developed which will take care of the practical requirements of the building.
It is often desirable to direct a structure which will house a single important object or to have one unit of the plan give emphasis to one particular phase of the activity which is to be carried on within. It is necessary that the architecture frame and accent this important object or activity.
With the exception of the most elementary forms, plans have direction. This direction is related to the shape and to the relative importance of the sides which bound the plan. This development of direction leads to the establishment of axis or lines about which the composition is organized.
Good planning is not the placing of areas together in an aimless way. A logical plan must have a reason behind it-"a parti", or scheme. If an exterior which tends toward symmetry, or monumentality, is desired, the plan elements may be arranged in a balanced manner about a central axis.
If a more informal massing is required, the beginning of the development - the plan - should assume this desired character.
A plan may be simple or complex, depending upon the use to which the building is to be put and upon the number of units or rooms required. Regardless of the complexity which plans may assume. They may all be reduced to the simple geometrical shapes which form the basis for all architecture. Plans and also elevations consist of areas which are recognized as the square, circle, rectangle, etc. selected for their suitability to the function of the building.
As one approaches a building and faces the principal facade, the major axis usually carries through the centre of the mass in the line directly away from the observer and at right angles to the main elevation.
The principal minor axis usually extends at right agnles to the major axis through the centre of the important element which tends to parallel the main elevation. In a complex plan the various parts may be grouped around minor axis, which show the directions
The simple rectangle has its long sides perpendicular to the line of sight of the observer (since in a represented plan the principal entrance side parallel to the street usually focus the bottom of the sheet).
It will be noticed that the major axis is at right angles to the directional quality of the area, indicating that the shape of a plan is not so important on an analysis of this kind as the location of the entrance and the arrangement of the internal units.
It will also be found that the axis are sometimes called "Transverse" which cuts the plan in its shortest direction and "Longitudinal" which extends through the length of the composition.
A plan should have contrast of size, shape, character, direction, balance and "emphasis".
In this illustration. This condition is secured by the use of the semicircular element with inches which impart a decorative rhythm and point to the monument in the centre of the composition. This arrangement also illustrates the principle of radiation from a single point. The centre of interest, the focal point - which contributes much to the quality of emphasis. The variety secured by the change of direction from the curved element to the straight line which forms the axis, for the buildings on either side adds to the appeal of the design.
may be present when a number of room of equal size and shape occure side by side, or when windows, columns, or arches are spaced in a regular manner to give unaccented rhythm.
a synonym for contrast. There may be alternating sizes of rectangular elements or alternation of shapes.
A satisfactory progression from one unit to another. Small vsibules protect and act as buffers for the lobbies which follow, and the lobbies allow the visitor to become adjusted to the situation which confronts him upon entering the building. These minor elements also give the observer some preparatory indication of the general character and use for the interior befor introducing him to the more important units.
In a complex plan it is offer desirable not to tell the whole story at once but to allow the beaauty and interest of the interior gradually to unfold itself, reserving for the climax some definitely predetermined accent. The most important thing to remember in plan analysis is that a good plan must have organization. The presence of absence of this organic quality can be seen at a glance, but needs much thought and study. A beautiful plan based on sound reasoning is the first prerequisite for a successful building.
The principle of transformation allows a designer to select a prototypical architectural model whose formal structure and ordering of elements might be appropriate and reasonable, and to transform it through a series of discrete manipulations to respond to the specific conditions and context of the design task at hand. Transformation requires first that the ordering system of the prior or prototypal model be perceived and understood so that, through a series of finite changes and permutations the original design concept can be classified, strengthened and built upon rather than destroyed.
A series of finite changes and permutations, the original design concept can be clarified, strengthened and built upon, rather than destroyed.
That ends our report