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Logical Fallacies in Present-Day Media
Transcript of Logical Fallacies in Present-Day Media
In this episode of "Friends", Joey's refrigerator breaks, but he can't afford a new one so he tries desperately to get one of his friends to pay for it. Ross's student girlfriend prepares to head to Miami for spring break and he thinks that she wants him to join her.
"The One With Joey's Fridge"
8 Ways of Knowing
What is a Logical Fallacy?
In layman's terms, a logical fallacy is an error in reasoning in which an arguer supports, or tries to persuade someone else to adopt, a position based on a substandard piece of evidence.
This image is a logical fallacy created on the premise of intuition as a way of knowing. Hasty generalization is being evidenced here because the male is inferring that a theory (evolution) is true based on an inadequate sample (the rock).
Seinfeld "The Apartment"
Logical Fallacies Present
Logical Fallacies Present
To what extent are logical fallacies wielded by the media to get through to its intended audience?
George tests the "man with a wedding band" theory of meeting women.
Post Hoc fallacy: Event C happened immediately prior to event E. Therefore, C caused E.
In this episode of "Friends", Joey has trouble paying for his broken fridge. To con one of his friends into helping pay for the fridge, Joey uses the Post Hoc fallacy. He does so by pushing Ross into the fridge, then claiming that it broke as a result. According to Joey, Ross being pushed into the fridge by Chandler caused the fridge to break, which is not really true.
Partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what’s really at stake. Often, the arguer never returns to the original issue. While giving an argument/advice regarding what Ross should say to his girlfriend, Joey pushes Ross into the fridge and then goes off on a tangent saying that Ross broke the fridge and that Chandler needs to pay for "pushing" Ross and breaking the fridge.
The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but there’s really not enough evidence for that assumption.
Ross claims that by going on a vacation with his girlfriend, it will have a chain reaction because things would be going very fast in their relationship. Later in the episode it is revealed that she was just telling him of her plan of going on a trip with her friends. She wasn't inviting him.
Hasty generalization is defined as making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate . At the beginning of this clip, George assumes that most women are immediately attracted to men who display wedding rings because after one of his friends got married and started walking around with a wedding ring, women began flocking to him. George makes this presumption about women based on scanty sample.
In a post hoc fallacy, an arguer assumes that because B came after A, A caused B.
During this snippet, George deduces that because women were attracted to his friend after his friend started wearing his wedding ring, his flaunting of his wedding ring caused women to lust after him.
Appeal to Pity
The appeal to pity takes place when an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone. After George's hypothesis is proven true, he meets a woman who is enticed by him, but doesn't act on her feelings because of his "marriage". He then tries to put the appeal to pity into effect when he tries to convince her of the conclusion that she can act on her sentiments because it is a sociological experiments and that he is in fact, "lonely."
At some point in time, there was somebody named Joey, who lived in New York City, that had a fridge and did not have the means to pay to repair/replace it.
Ross was, indeed, scared that things were moving too fast in his relationship and feared going on a vacation with his girlfriend.
Joey's fridge was broken.
Ways of Knowing
Ways of Knowing
George had to resort to an experiment to finally get women to notice him.
George could not get the ring off his finger, after wearing it for son long.
Somewhere in America, there is a middle-aged man named George that has a hard time meeting women, is short, and is slowly balding.