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Bradley Flamm

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of Volcanoes

Volcanoes What is a volcano? Famous Volcanoes How do Volcanologists predict volcanoes? A volcano is a mountain with an open top that leads to a pool of molten rock beneath the surface of the Earth. When pressure builds up inside of the volcano it erupts. The difference between magma and lava is magma is liquid rock inside a volcano and lava is liquid rock that flows out of a volcano. Magma Lava The most volcanoes are found in the Ring of Fire which is mostly on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. There are four different types of volcanoes:
- Cinder Cones: Circular or oval cones made up of small fragments of lava that have been blown up in the air, cooled and fallen back into the volcano.
-Composite Volcanoes: Steep sided volcanoes made of many layers of volcanic rocks.
- Shield Volcanoes: Volcanoes shaped like a bowl or shield in the middle with long gentle slopes.
- Lava Volcanoes: Volcanoes formed when erupting lava is too thick to flow and make a steep-sided mound as the lava piles up near the volcano's vent. Cinder Cone volcano Composite Volcano Shield Volcano Lava Volcano Name: Mount Pelee
Location: Martinique
Date of eruption: 1902
Impact: It let out a glowing cloud of ash and rock and destroyed the city of St. Pierre in a matter of minutes. Name: Krakatoa
Location: The Indonesian island of Krakatoa
Date of eruption: 1883
Impact: It was 13,000 times the power of an atomic bomb and was heard as far off as the eastern coast of Africa an estimated 36,000 people died. Island of Krakatoa Name: Ejafjallajokull (pronunciation: Eye-a-fyut-la-jo-kull) it means "Island mountain volcano"
Location: Iceland
Date of eruption: March 20, 2010
Impact: It cast a cloud of ash across the entire continent of Europe shutting down airports and costing the airline industry more than 1 billion dollars. There are a some signs a volcano might give off before an eruption:
- The magma chamber will collect magma
- The magma chamber gets so full the lava will come to the surface
- Then it starts to swell These are some tools a volcanologist might use. A seismograph, it finds small earthquakes which mean an eruption is coming. Correlation spectrometers, they measure the amount of volcanic material. Tiltmeter, they see how much bigger a volcano gets after an eruption. Thermometer, they measure how much gas is is the volcano. These are some volcanoes that have been predicted:
- Mt. Kilauea, Hawaii
- Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines
- Mt. Saint Helens, Washington State
- Mt. Etna, Italy Are scientists very accurate about predicting volcanoes? Scientists are almost always correct, but every once in a while they don't get it completely right. It's like predicting weather. They're normally correct that a volcano will erupt just not the exact time it will erupt. By: Theo Wyss-Flamm The End!!! Thanks for watching!! Name: Mount Saint Helens
Location: Washington state
Date of Eruption: May 18, 1980
Type of Volcano: Composite Volcano
Impact: On March 17 it blew a crater through its ice cap. At first there was a 5.1 earthquake which triggered a landslide. The blast was heard in California. It was the worst volcanic disaster in US history. 57 people died California Name: Thera
Location: The Greek island of Santorini
Date of Eruption: 1883
Impact: The eruption was four or five times the explosion of Krakatoa. The eruption blew a hole in the Aegean isle sending out shock waves that would reverberate for centuries to come.
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