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Writing focus: paraphrasing

upper u1
by

Nezaket Özgirin

on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of Writing focus: paraphrasing

Effective paraphrasing techniques
Phase 1
Changing Word Order
• “Because I slept too late, I missed my first class”
“I missed my first class because I slept too late,”
• “In order to pass that class, I had to study very hard” to “I had to study very hard in order to pass that class.”

Phase 2: Changing parts of speech

1. The company needs to find a solution for this problem.
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2. The poor economy has been the cause of high unemployment.
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3. If you eat rabbit, you will find its taste like chicken.
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Phase 3: Using Synonyms
• “Movies can be divided into three categories”
“Movies can be divided into three types.”


More Exercise
4. Americans consider someone who looks them in the eye to be honest. A person who looks down or looks away, in contrast, is suspected of being dishonest.
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1. If you’re going to New York for Christmas, be sure to take warm clothes.
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2. Even though the weather was good, Joan was in a bad mood.
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3. I had no money, so I borrowed some.
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• “Fifty-four men signed the Declaration of Independence”
“Fifty-four men put their signatures on the Declaration of Independence.”
1. The way a person dresses affects the impression that other people have.
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2. That phrase means “in a happy way.”
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3. There is little chance that the situation will improve.
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Phase 4: Using Negative or Opposite Expressions
1. Shaun was disappointed, because the movie wasn’t very good.
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2. Japan is not a small country, compared to European countries.
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3. Abuzer wanted some candy, but there wasn’t any in the bowl.
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• “Rather than building a traditional memorial, the city built a park”
“The city did not build a traditional memorial; instead it built a park.”
1. Elizabeth I was the daughter of Henry VIII. She is one of England’s most famous queens.
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2. This book is about a woman who pretended to be a man to join the army in World War II. It is one of Lynn’s favorite books.
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3. If you go to London, you should be sure to visit Westminster Abbey, where many of the kings and queens of England, as well as other famous people, are buried.
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Combining or Separating Sentences
• “Ireland is a wonderful country, which has beautiful scenery, friendly people, and an interesting history”
“Ireland is a wonderful country. It has beautiful scenery, friendly people, and an interesting history.”
“Ireland, which is a wonderful country, has beautiful scenery, friendly people, and an interesting history.”
• “The dog bit the man
“The man was bitten by the dog”
• “It is not unusual for June to be a rainy month here”
“June is often a rainy month here,”
• “It is thought that this new plan will save money”
“Many people think that this new plan will save money.”
1. Various languages are spoken in this country.
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2. Frank studied French, and, as a result, he translated for our visitors from France.
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3. Tom McGovern got married three times and had five children.
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Using Different Grammar – Structure, Voice
1. Gone with the Wind, which was published in 1936, covered 12 years of the life of a woman named Scarlett O’Hara during and after the Civil War. It began when she was 16 year old and tells the story of her love for two men.
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3. The Internet is a vast treasure house of knowledge, but it does not have any central organization, and so it can be difficult to find information, if you are not familiar with it.
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2. While California’s cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco are probably better known, California is fortunate enough to have a great deal of beautiful scenery, both in its mountains and along its coast.
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Full transcript