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Circulation in Invertebrates and Vertebrates
Transcript of Circulation in Invertebrates and Vertebrates
Digestion begins in cavity, so only cells of the inner layer have direct access to nutrients
Flat shape of body + branching of gastrovascular cavity Invertebrete Circulation Types of Circulatory Systems Blood
Muscular pump both have... Open Circulatory System Blood bathes organs directly
Chemical exchange occurs btwn hemolymph + body cells
heart pumps hemolymph through vessels out into sinuses when it contracts When heart relaxes, it pumps hemolymph into circulatory
system w/ ostia
Closed Circulatory System Blood travels
Distinct from interstitial fluid
more effective at transporting circulatory fluids Need for Circulation 1. Exchange of materials and energy with environment Cells receive resources and get rid of wastes 2. Direct exchange with environment impossible Diffusion inefficient over distance of more than a few millimeters 3. Problem solved through bulk fluid Connects interstitial fluid to organs Vertebrate Circulation (Generally)
Metabolic rate + evolution Mammals divided ventricle into left side + right side
no mixing of blood
4-chambered heart - evolved independently Fish 1 ventricle, 1 atrium
blood passes through 2 capillary beds Amphibians 3-chambered heart: 2 atria, 1 ventricle
double circulation Reptiles double circulation with pulmonary + systemic circuits
2 arteries to systemic circuit the Mammalian Heart Structure of the heart Pathway of Blood More stuff... Left and Right Atrium collection chambers
contractions of atria fill ventricles
expansion of atria = pulse Left and Right Ventricles thick walls
blood to body
Atrioventricular Valves prevent backflow
between atria and ventricles Semilunar Valves at two exits of heart
prevents blood from flowing back into ventricles
heart sounds of stethoscope caused by closing of valves cardiac cycle: one complete sequence of pumping and filling
cardiac output: volume of blood/minute, includes heart rate and stroke volume Pacemaker (sinoatrial valve) wall of right atrium
sets rate and timing at which all cardiac cells contract
generates electrical impulses (like nerve cells!)
to both atria
to atrioventricular node, delayed, sent to ventricles tempo of heart influenced by... two nerves
exercise Systems of Circulation Cardiovascular Diseases inherited
but increased risk from smoking, lack of exercise, animal fat, high cholesterol
LDL: "bad" associated with deposition of cholesterol in arterial plaques
HDL: "good", reduction of deposition Blood Pressure hydrostatic pressure that fluids exert drives blood through arteries, arterioles, etc Pulse
Veins blood pressure greater in arteries than veins Why? 1. blood loses velocity as is passes through capillaries from artery to vein
2. blood in veins farther from heart
3. [bipedal animal] blood travels against gravity in veins Blood Circulation Capillary Function 2 mechanisms regulate distribution of blood Both depend on smooth muscles contraction of smooth muscle decreases blood flow to capillary bed
relaxation of muscles, more blood enters capillaries precapillary sphincters Measurement of Blood Pressure Law of continuity fluid flows faster through narrower vessels
total corss-sectional area of capillaries excercising
shivering Blood Vessel Structure and Function Veins and Arteries have three similar layers
Outside has several elastic fibers for stretching
Middle layer has smooth muscle and elastic fibers
Inner layer is lined with endothelium, which minimizes resistance to the flow of blood
Capillaries lack outer two layers
Arteries are thick to accommodate for blood pressure
Veins are thinner; blood is transported by muscle contractions Blood flow velocity Law of continuity: idea that fluid flows through narrower segments of an enclosed area than in an enclosed area that is higher in diameter.
Based on this concept, one may think that capillaries are the sites of fastest blood flow.
This is NOT true, because the total cross sectional area of the capillaries determines the blood flow velocity.
More areas to flow to= slower blood velocity. Blood Cells Blood Compostion and Function Blood Plasma Cells suspended in liquid matrix called plasma, which makes up 55% of blood
Plasma is mostly water
Contains multiple ions that maintain osmotic balance of blood, maintains pH Cellular Elements of Blood 45% of blood is made up of cellular elements
Red blood cells (erythrocytes): Transport Oxygen
White Blood cells (Leukocytes): involved with immune system
Platelets: involved in clotting process.
Cellular elements of blood are replaced throughout a person's life.
Develop from pluripotent stem cells in red marrow of bones.
Kidneys will release hormone EPO to make more red blood cells. Blood Clotting Fibrinogen is the inactive form of fibrin, which is a plasma protein that clots blood
Hemophilia is a genetic mutation where excessive bleeding occurs because of trouble clotting blood. The Circulatory System Alyssa Hartje
Sam Caber Circulation depends on anatomy and pumping cycle of the heart Review Why is the animal circulatory system neccesary?