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Merit Badge

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Amanda Banda

on 26 August 2014

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Transcript of Merit Badge

Online
Safety

Requirements
Uses
History
Career Opportunities
Marcos Almanza
Arnold Juarez
Amanda Banda
Harlingen, Texas
Requirements
Information from:
1. Be aware of your "digital footprint"
2. Never post your personal information, such as a cell phone number, address, or the name of your school.
3. Be aware that information you give out through social networking sites, instant messages, e-mails, and blogs could put you at risk of bullying and other types of victimization.
4. Never meet in person with anyone you first “met” online. Some people may not be who they say they are.
5. Remember that posting information about your friends could put them at risk.
6. Never respond to harassing or rude texts, messages, and e-mails. Delete any unwanted messages or friends who continuously leave inappropriate comments.
7. Never give out your password to anyone other than your parent or guardian.
8. If you wouldn’t say something to another person’s face, don’t post it online!
9. Only add people as friends to your site if you know them in real life.
10. Think before posting your photos. DO NOT post or send semi-nude or nude pictures of yourself or anyone else! Personal photos should not have revealing information such as school names or location.
11. Use the privacy settings of the social networking sites.
1. Discuss with your counselor the tips for online safety.
2. Give a short history of the computer. Explain how the invention of the computer has affected society, science, and technology.
3. Do the following:
a. Describe four uses of computers outside the home.
b. Describe three ways you and your family could use a personal computer other than for games and entertainment. 

4. Do the following:
a. The five major parts of a computer.
b. How text, sound, pictures, and video files are stored in a computer's memory.
c. How file compression works and how compression affects the quality of the file.
d. Describe two computer chip-based devices, and describe how they are "smarter" because of the chip and its program. 

5. Do the following:
a. Explain what a program or software application is and how it is developed.
b. Name three programming languages, and describe their uses.
c. Name four software packages you or your family could use, and explain how you would use them.
d. Discuss ways you can help protect a computer from viruses and how to protect the information stored on a computer.
e. Describe how computers are linked to generate and access the Internet and the World Wide Web.
6. Do THREE of the following:
a. Using a spreadsheet program, develop a food budget for a patrol weekend campout.
b. Using a word processor, write a letter to the parents of your troop's Scouts inviting them to a court of honor.
c. Using a computer graphics program, design and draw a campsite plan for your troop.
d. Using a computer graphics program, create a flier for an upcoming troop event, incorporating both text and some type of visual such as a photograph or illustration.
e. Using an Internet search engine (with your parent's permission), find ideas about how to conduct a troop court of honor or campfire program. Print out a copy of the ideas from at least three different Web sites. Share what you found with your counselor, and explain how you used the search engine to find this information.
f. Using a presentation software program of your choice, develop a report about a topic that has been approved by your counselor. For your presentation, create at least 10 slides.
g. Using a digital camera, take a picture of a troop activity. Transfer the picture file to a computer and use photographic software to make it small enough to send easily as an e-mail attachment. Then, using a computer connected to the Internet (with your parent's permission), send an e-mail to someone you know. In your message, include the photograph as an attachment. Verify that the person received your e-mail and was able to view the attachment.
h. Using a database manager, create a troop roster that
includes the name, rank, patrol, and telephone number of each
Scout. Show your counselor that you can sort the register by
each of the following categories: rank, patrol, and
alphabetically by name.
7. 
Do ONE of the following:
a. Using a database program of your choice, create a troop roster that includes the name, rank, patrol, and telephone number of each Scout. Create a form within the database manager to access each Scout's information individually. Show your counselor how the form works. 
b. Using a software package of your choice for computer aided design (CAD), create an engineering-style drawing of a simple object. Include the top, bottom, and at least one side view and the dimensions. 
c. Create a blog and use it as an online journal of your Scouting activities, including group discussions and meetings, campouts, and other events. Your blog should have at least five entries and two photographs or illustrations. You need not post the blog to the Internet, but you will need to share it with your counselor. If you decide to go live with your blog, you must first share it with your parents AND counselor and get their approval. 
d. Create a Web page for your troop, patrol, school, or place of worship. Include at least three articles and two photographs or illustrations. Your Web page should have at least one link to a Web site that would be of interest to your audience. You need not post the page to the Internet. However, if you decide to do so, you must first share it with your parents AND counselor and get their approval. 
e. Visit a business or an industrial plant that uses computers. Observe what tasks the computers accomplish, and be prepared to discuss what you have learned. 

8. Explain the following to your counselor:
a. Why copyright laws exist
b. Why it is not permissible to accept a paid, copyrighted computer game or program from a friend unless the game or program is considered freeware or shareware. Explain the concepts of freeware and shareware. c. The restrictions and limitations of downloading music from the Internet.
9. Find out about three career opportunities in the computer industry. Pick one and find out the education, training, and experience required for this profession. Discuss this with your counselor, and explain why this profession might interest you. Report what you learn to your counselor.


COMPUTERS
SOCIAL
Text:
Stored using a special code (ASCII) corresponding to the numbers between 0 and 255
COMPUTERS
Merit Badge
Boy Scouts of America
TIPS 4 ONLINE SAFETY
HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER
Computers -- Outside the Home
Storing Data
File Compression
The modern computer reflects the ingenuity of many inventors, mathematicians, and philosophers -- over a period of centuries, improving upon the work of those who came before them.
1100 B.C.
ABACUS
* Calculating aid
* Used to: add, subtract,
multiply & divide
1830s
THE FIRST COMPUTER
* Made by Charles Babbage, an
English Mathematician
* Intended to automatically
produce mathematical tables for navigation at sea
* Consisted of 4 main parts, all
found on today's computers
EDVAC & ENIAC
* Designed by: John William Mauchly & J. Presper Eckert, Jr.
* "First generation" digital computers
* Weighed tons, filled an entire room, & consumed LOTS of electricity
* ENIAC: Used by the military to calculate weapon trajectories & help build atomic bombs
*UNIVAC: General-purpose to serve scientists, businessmen & engineers
*** The term "bug" was started by Grace Hooper. The original bug was actually a moth that created a hardware problem in the Mark I. ***
Computers -- Affect on Society, Science & Technology
Society
– the way we communicate (social networking, email, Skype, texting, entertainment)
Science
– Computers are used for research and development (can be used as tools to solve problems, manufacture better products, new medicine to cure people, develop advanced economies)
Technology
– Makes life easier (Internet for endless content, resources, and communications) technology itself enables us to continue improving current technology and its usefulness.

* In hindsight they are all interconnected and each can affect the other in positive and/or negative ways.

1.
Library
– to search for books, videos, and other resources. Also Internet access, including WiFi
2.
Jobs
- some employers have computers you can use to submit applications
3.
Businesses
– use them to perform daily operating procedures, inventory, sales, ordering
4.
School
– learning, research,
assignments, current events

What are some ways you, or your parents, use computers, outside of the home?
Uses of the Personal Computer
What are some other ways you and your family could use a personal computer?
1. Communications – staying in touch with friends and family (email, Skype, instant messaging)
2. Find locations – movie theater and show times, restaurant, useful on vacation

3. Internet – Search the World Wide Web for information, paying bills, checking weather
5 Major Parts
1. MB (Motherboard) – Sometimes called a Mobo, Mainboard, or System board is a large circuit board connecting and managing all components of a computer. Most motherboards include integrated (onboard) video and sound ports and do not require expansion cards (video card or sound card).
MOTHERBOARD
2. CPU (Central Processing Unit) – Referred to as Processor. This is the brain of the computer. It carries out instructions, performs basic mathematical, logical, and input/output functions as well as processes data and requests.
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
3.) RAM (Random Access Memory) – Short Term Memory, Temporary storage (primary), a work area used by programs and files when in use.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
4. HDD (Hard Disk Drive) – Long Term, Permanent Storage (secondary), where everything is stored (Operating System, Software Applications, files, pictures, music, etc.)

*** There is a big difference in the terms Memory and Storage, Most people get these confused. ***
HARD DISK DRIVE
5. PSU (Power Supply Unit) – Supplies power to all components of a computer.
POWER SUPPLY UNIT
Pictures:
Stored as pixels (small dots), made up of pixels, each pixel is made up of 0’s and 1’s to indicate the color.
Various file formats .jpg, .gif, .tif, .png
Video Files
: Todays microprocessors make
it possible to store video files to hard drives.
Various Video file formats (codecs)
MP4, .AVI, .MOV, .WMV
*** A computer will not function without all 5 components. ***
Sound:
Sound card feeds analog signal into bits that the computer can read and save as a digital file.
Various Sound file formats .wav, .m4a, .mp3, .wma
* Reduces the size of a file which can reduce the amount of time it takes to transfer or download a file.
* Can also help increase available storage since smaller files occupy less space in the stored location.
Files can be very large to download and take lots of storage space.
Compression software uses complex equations to scan a file for repeating patterns in the data.
Example:
Uncompressed: The cat ran across the room. (* = the)
Compressed:
* cat ran across * room)

Determines how the qualify of the file is affected
Lossy: Picture formats, some data is lost forever
Lossless: Temporarily shrinks a file by removing repeated parts. Lossless used with text & database files
How Compression Works
Affecting File Quality
SMART CHIPS
Device 1: Smart Phone
Device 2: Game Console
Device 1: Has a (CPU) processor, storage, and memory, just like a computer
Device 2: Also has a (CPU) processor, storage, and memory like a computer
** Chips allow devices to process more information faster and the program allows the user to control and interact with the device. **

PROGRAM
* A set of instructions that tells the computer to perform specific tasks.
DEVELOPED
* Written by a programmer, the set of instructions are written using a variety of programming languages.

APPLICATIONS
Word Processing (Word)
Spreadsheet (Excel)
Browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari,Chrome )
Data Base (Access)
Presentation (PowerPoint)
Desktop Publishing
Graphics & Design
Video Editing
Specialized (Accounting, Ordering,….)



OPERATING SYSTEM
An Operating System are the instructions to run (operate) a computer or device.
The OS manages hardware, runs applications, provides an interface, stores, retrieves, and manipulates files


1. C++
has been widely used for games, operating systems, and various applications
2.
HTML
can be used to program/create websites
3.
Java
can be used to create web applications

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Word Processor: Microsoft Word
Type documents, create tables, flyers, and business cards, type essays, letters, memos, write a resume, or grocery list
Uses
Package 1
Package 2
Package 3 & 4
Spreadsheets:
Microsoft Excel
Keep track of a budget, inventory items, create a grocery list, calculate data
Uses
Presentations: Microsoft PowerPoint
Movie Maker
PPT: Present information for school or work related projects
MM: Highlight family events, create a video slide show,
present information
Uses
Software Packages & Uses
VIRUSES
* Anti-virus software should always be installed on your computer
- The anti-virus must be updated on a consistent basis.
- A variety of anti-virus applications are available with most requiring purchasing and renewing on an annual basis. Some free versions are also available which provide basic virus protection.
* A Firewall is an additional type of hardware/software that creates a barrier to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between other networks and/or computers.
* Beware of downloading .exe files
How to Protect from Viruses
How to Protect the Information
* A Firewall also protects information from being stolen from your computer.
* BACK, BACK, BACK IT UP! !!! Be sure to back up important files to an external file, USB drive or a cloud based program. Cherished photos, music, projects, can be lost in seconds due to viruses, malware, or hard drive failure.
Computer use software to connect and access the World Wide Web.
- ISP – provides consumer with Internet access.
- Protocols – TCP/IP allows computers to connect and communicate using an IP address
- A “Web Browser” is software to view content on the Internet. Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, and Safari are all web browsers you can use to surf the Web.
- A “Search Engine” is software that allows you to search for specific content on the Internet.
Computers Linked to Generate & Access the Internet & WWW
ACCESSING WEB
COPYRIGHT LAWS
Why do they exist?
A form of legal protection given to content creators through the assignment of specific rights to works that qualify for protection.
* One major purpose of Copyright Law is to “promote the progress of the sciences and useful arts”, in other words knowledge.
* Copyright law is an attempt to balance public interest with the rights of the individual author/creator.
*** Owner is only given rights for a specific length of time. ***
Content publishers have always taken pains to protect their intellectual property.
Most content is covered by copyright, meaning that it cannot be copied or downloaded without special permission from the author or without payment to the company.
* Most commercial software packages have elaborate licensing agreements, much more like leasing than buying
* Shareware, freeware, banner ware, ad ware, and open-source software are all variations on the licensing of software
* Public-domain software is not copyrighted, and is free to be
copied and used

FREEWARE
* Software offered free of charge, downloadable off of the Internet.
* If the software requires the user to view ads while using the program, it is technically adware.
* Has a user license or EULA (End User License Agreement). Each license is specific to the software it is bundled with. For example, most freeware forbids the user to alter the program, repackage it, or sell it. It might allow redistribution, however, as long as the program is unchanged and the license agreement intact.
*** Does not often come with technical support, and some programs do not have an extensive Help menu. ***
Not permissible to accept a paid, copyrighted computer game or programs.. UNLESS it's considered freeware or shareware
SHAREWARE
* Shareware is software that you can use on a trial basis before paying for it.
* Often has limited functionality or may only be used for a limited time before requiring payment and registration.
distributed on the basis of an honor system.
* Most delivered free of charge, but the author usually requests that you pay a small fee if you like the program and use it regularly. By sending the small fee, you become registered with the producer so that you can receive service assistance and updates.
*** You can copy shareware and pass it along to friends and colleagues, but they too are expected to pay a fee if they use the product. ***
Downloading or Sharing Music \ Movies for free is the same as stealing from a local store, unless when allowed by law.
There have been many convictions of users and companies due to copyright violations.
If you pay for the download, then it's legal, and you're okay!
Free music is also available, be sure to read disclaimers.
Copy write protection laws make it ILLEGAL.
Some music can be lawfully downloaded, and for those that aren't, laws regarding the sharing and downloading of music on the Internet vary from country to country.
Downloading Music From the Internet
Hardware Engineer

Programmer \Web Site Designer

Systems Integrator
A person or company that specializes in bringing together component subsystems into a whole and ensuring that those subsystems function together, ie Network Systems
Education: Information Technology (IT) Degree,
Training: Private companies certifications, ie Microsoft, HP, Dell Systems Engineer.
Experience: Normally 3 years working with computers and networks.
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES
WHY MIGHT THIS PROFESSION INTEREST YOU??
a. Using a spreadsheet program, develop a food budget for a patrol weekend campout.
b. Using a word processor, write a letter to the parents of your troop's Scouts inviting them to a court of honor.
c. Using a computer graphics program, design and draw a campsite plan for your troop.
d. Using a computer graphics program, create a flier for an upcoming troop event, incorporating both text and some type of visual such as a photograph or illustration.
f. Using a presentation software program of your choice, develop a report about a topic that has been approved by your counselor. For your presentation, create at least 10 slides.
e. Using an Internet search engine (with your parent's permission), find ideas about how to conduct a troop court of honor or campfire program. Print out a copy of the ideas from at least three different Web sites. Share what you found with your counselor, and explain how you used the search engine to find this information.
g. Using a digital camera, take a picture of a troop activity. Transfer the picture file to a computer and use photographic software to make it small enough to send easily as an e-mail attachment. Then, using a computer connected to the Internet (with your parent's permission), send an e-mail to someone you know. In your message, include the photograph as an attachment. Verify that the person received your e-mail and was able to view the attachment.
h. Using a database manager, create a troop roster that includes the name, rank, patrol, and telephone number of each Scout. Show your counselor that you can sort the register by each of the following categories: rank, patrol, and alphabetically by name.
Do THREE of the following:
For designs: www.canva.com
Viruses
PROGRAM/SOFTWARE APPLICATION
Full transcript