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Vietnam

Vietnam Unit 1
by

Ross Bernard

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Vietnam

The Trung Sisters The Trung sisters rose an army of Vietnamese in 40 AD to combat Chinese domination [1]
The Han dynasty had oppressed Vietnam for over two centuries [1]
Trung Trac and Trung Nhi rode elephants into battle
The Trung sisters inspired the Vietnamese so greatly that Phung Thi Chinh, one of their commanders, gave birth during battle and continued fighting [2]
The Trung sisters set the precedent of women fighting in Vietnam
Upon victory, Trung Trac became the first female ruler of Vietnam [1]
The Trung sisters represent the courageous spirit and dedication of the Vietnamese people Battle of Bach Dang The first battle of Bach Dang occurred in 938 AD [5]
Prior to the battle, Vietnam had been waging a rebellion against the Chinese who had named Vietnam "Annam" which means "pacified south" [5]
The Vietnamese under General Ngo Quyen fought against Nanhan invaders [5]
The Vietnamese placed spikes in the Bach Dang river and baited the Chinese ships into them, destroying them [5]
The loss of their navy forced the Chinese to retreat, ending colonial rule over Vietnam for the most part until French domination, nearly 1000 years later Gia Long •Nguyen Phuc Anh (1761-1820) was the greatest of the Nguyen emperors [6]
•Seeking aid against the Tay Son and other rivals, he was the first Vietnamese ruler to seek French aid
•The treaty of 1787 signed with the French guaranteed missionary and commercial rights to France and military aid to Vietnam [6]
•The terms of the treaty were not realized until 1862, so Gia Long did not require French assistance to take power
•He declared himself emperor Gia Long to represent the joining of Gia Dinh (Saigon) and Thang Long (Hanoi), bringing new unity to Vietnam and moving the capital to Hue [6]
•Gia Long tolerated but disliked the French interfering in Vietnam
•He adopted Chinese as Vietnam’s official written language as an outreach to China French Domination of Vietnam •Aggression began on August 31, 1858 at Danang, when a French naval squadron attacked the city [9]
•The fighting lasted from 1858 to 1884 [9]
•The French were able to take the country due to the decay of Vietnam’s feudal monarchy and general unrest
•The king and court of the Nguyen dynasty attempted peace and negotiation
•Vietnam was combined into Indochina with Cambodia and Laos in 1887 [9]
•The French concentrated money in the mining industry, as well as plantations which grew tea, coffee, and rubber [9]
•The new view on agricultural products as commodities began a rift between the bourgeois and the proletariat
•The French reformed education, establishing infant, primary, and secondary levels of education [9]
•The French taxed farmers and laborers heavily
•Many resistance movements arose, but the most important is Ho Chi Minh’s Communist party formation in 1930 [9]
•Vietnamese culture was largely unaffected by French colonialism Yen Bai Rebellion •In 1930, under the leadership of Nguyen Thai Hoc, the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang launched a military revolt in Yen Bay [10]
•The rebellion failed within 24 hours, due to the majority of Vietnamese in the garrison refusing to turn on the colonial army [10]
•The leaders of the VNQDD were arrested, tried, and put to death shortly after Ho Chi Minh •Ho Chi Minh was born in Kimlien, Annam on May 19, 1890 [8]
•Ho’s real name was Nguyen Tat Thanh
•He worked as a cook on a French steamship in 1911, which led him to working in Paris and London [8]
•After WWI, he petitioned for Vietnamese independence under the pseudonym Nguyen Ai Quoc unsuccessfully [8]
•He helped found the French Communist party and trained in Moscow
•In 1924, he helped organize Vietnamese refugees in China and returned in 1930 to found the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) [8]
•Founded the Vietminh in 1941 to combat Japanese rule of Vietnam
•On September 2, 1945 when Japan surrendered, the Vietminh took power and created the Democratic Republic of Vietnam [11]
•The French fought back in 1946, but the Vietnamese won independence in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu [8]
•Ho died on September 3, 1969, and Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in honor of him [8] WWII in Vietnam Bao Dai Thesis The national pride and unbreakable dedication to country of the Vietnamese people is evidence of their fiercely nationalistic culture which has resulted from years of oppression from foreign forces. Why are the Vietnamese so fiercely nationalistic? A presentation by Shane Brady and Ross Bernard •Upon the French being defeated in 1940 by the Germans, Japanese forces took control of Vietnam [12]
•The Vietminh was founded in 1941 to combat Japanese rule [8]
•When Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945, the Vietminh took power [11]
•Vietnam was denied autonomy at the Geneva conference in 1946 [8] •Bao Dai was the last emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty, born on October 22nd, 1913 in Hue [16]
•In March 1945, Bao Dai was made a puppet emperor by the Japanese [16]
•Bao Dai went into exile in Hong Kong in 1946, returning in June 1948 [16]
•The French installed Bao Dai as head of state in 1949 [16]
•In 1955, the South Vietnamese were asked to choose between Ngo Dinh Diem and Bao Dai due to Diem’s unpopularity [16]
•Bao Dai lost due to his poll rigging and corruption and was exiled to Paris where he died on July 31st, 1997 [16] Background/Topic Information OSS in Vietnam August Revolution Ho deals with the French Shelling of Haiphong China recognizes the DRV State of Vietnam Henri Navarre Dien Bien Phu The OSS trained and collaborated with the Vietminh and Ho Chi Minh during 1945 [17]
The Vietminh sabotaged Japanese railroads, supply lines, conducted guerilla operations, and rescued down American flyers for the OSS [17]
General William Donovan headed the OSS
The Vietminh were led to believe that the OSS supported them, which led them to fill the power vacuum when Japan surrendered [17] On August 17th, 1945 the Vietminh and revolutionary forces staged demonstrations and uprisings that would last until August 30th [11]
On August 19th, the revolutionaries under Ho Chi Minh gained control of Hanoi [11]
On August 25th, Bao Dai was forced to abdicate the throne and hand over power to the Vietminh and Ho and the Saigon was taken by the Vietminh [11]
Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2nd, 1945
A few days later, the Chinese Nationalist army occupied the area north of the 17th parallel, while the British occupied the area south of the 17th parallel [12] Ho negotiated with the French in order to oust the Chinese from the area north of the 17th parallel, agreeing to allow the French army back into the country in early 1946 [12]
French and Vietminh relations gradually broke down, and the Vietminh launched resistance attacks toward the occupying French known as the First Indochina War or the French Resistance War [12] The French Navy shelled the city of Haiphong in December 1946 [13]
The shelling of the city allowed the French to forcibly re-enter the city of Hanoi, signaling the start of the First Indochina War [13]
Haiphong is a population, education, and commercial center for Vietnam In 1950, the US recognized the Associated State of Vietnam (South Vietnam), and China reacted by recognizing the DRV, providing it with limited assistance [12]
The backing of Vietnam by the Chinese communists equaled nullified the effect of the US support for the State of Vietnam Also known as the Associated State of Vietnam, headed by Bao Dai [14][15]
The State was backed by the French and the United States [13]
Ngo Dinh Diem replaced Bao Dai as Prime Minister in 1954 [14][15]
The State of Vietnam was heavily nationalistic compared to the communist north French Commander in Vietnam as of 1953
Tried to lure Vo Ngyuen Giap’s forces into an open battle where they would be slaughtered [3][18]
Turned Dien Bien Phu into a fortified stronghold with 14,000 men [18]
Built nine strong points in the surrounding area of Dien Bien Phu [18][4]
Navarre’s military advisors unanimously opposed the base at Dien Bien Phu, but two years after its fall he recounted that there were no objections [18] French held stronghold constructed in 1953
Giap moved 50,000 men into the valley of Dien Bien Phu and dragged howitzers and field guns up the surrounding hills [3][12][18]
Giap commandeered the airstrip with his artillery, disallowing any planes to land or take off, cutting off supplies [3][18]
Head on assaults took Gabrielle and Beatrice points which led the French Colonel Charles Piroth to blow himself up with a grenade [4]
Air attacks against the Vietnamese proved ineffective due to their use of trenches and tunnels [3][4]
The Vietnamese, having stormed more of the strongpoints, stormed and took the main airfield [3]
The Vietnamese shelled the French for eight weeks
Strongpoint Isabelle was finally taken on May 7th [7]
10,000 French prisoners were taken, but only 3,000 survived [4] Interview with DRV Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap in 1954 (starts at 1:20) This interview with Giap, who represents the Vietminh forces, perfectly illustrates the Vietnamese dedication to an independent Vietnam. He mentions that the strongest strength of the resistance is their morale, and that all imperialist forces will eventually and without doubt lose a war. Documentary covering the 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu Despite the Vietnamese resistance losing 5,000 more men and receiving 9,000 more casualties, the result was considered a victory by the Vietminh. Their immense resistance to oppression pays off eventually and inevitably, as Ho Chi Minh, Vo Nguyen Giap, and others promised. Videos on Vietnam [1] "Festival Celebrates Uprising of Trung Sisters." Festival Celebrates Uprising of Trung Sisters. Trans. MT. SGGP, 29 Feb. 2012. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.saigon-gpdaily.com.vn/Culture_Art/2012/2/100054/>.

[2] "Viet Nam Marks Int'l Women's Day with Support for Businesswomen." Vietnam Embassy in China. Vietnam Embassy in China, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.vnemba.org.cn/en/nr080225152919/nr080225155657/news_object_view?newsPath=/vnemb.vn/tinkhac/ns050308100356>.

[3] Nagorski, T. (2010, Feb 20). Books -- review: The french connection --- vietnam lessons the U.S. might have learned at dien bien phu. Wall Street Journal, pp. 8-W.8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/399125094?accountid=35700

[4] Cavendish, R. (2004). The fall of dien bien phu may 7th, 1954. History Today, 54(5), 60-61. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/202817042?accountid=35700

[5] "History - Historical Events." Battle of Bach Dang. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://history.cultural-china.com/en/34History8052.html>.

[6] "Gia Long (emperor of Vietnam)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/232868/Gia-Long>.

[7] "Battle of Dien Bien Phu." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Sept. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dien_Bien_Phu>.

[8] Karnow, Stanley. "Ho Chi Minh." Time. Time, 13 Apr. 1998. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,988162,00.html

[9] "Franco-Vietnamese War." Everything2.com. Everything2, 02 Apr. 2003. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://everything2.com/title/Franco-Vietnamese War>

[10] "Yen Bai Mutiny." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yen_Bai_mutiny>.

[11] "August Revolution in Retrospect." English.vov.vn. VOV Online, 19 Aug. 2009. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://english.vov.vn/Home/August-Revolution-in-retrospect/20098/107018.vov>.

[12] Mershon, Igor. "Why Was the United States Unsuccessful in Vietnam?" Russian History. Eng.history.ru, 2006. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://eng.history.ru/content/view/146/87/>.

[13] Aspinall, Terry. "The Vietnam Conflict and the Soldiers of Fortune Who Became Involved." The Vietnam Conflict and the Soldiers of Fortune Who Became Involved. Mercenary-wars.net, 2010. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://www.mercenary-wars.net/vietnam/index.html>.

[14] "State of Vietnam." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 09 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_Vietnam>.

[15] "Vietnam." Britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/628438/Associated-State-of-Vietnam>.

[16] "Bao Dai." Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Spartacus Educational, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/VNbo.htm>.

[17] Bartholomew-Feis, Dixee R. "The OSS and Ho Chi Minh." The OSS and Ho Chi Minh. University Press of Kansas, 2007. Web. 15 Sept. 2012. <http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/baross.html>.

[18] Pennington, David. "Military History Online." Military History Online. Military History Online, 03 Dec. 2006. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/vietnam/articles/dienbienphu.aspx>.

[19] Dư, Thái Thị Ngọc, Nguyễn Thị Nhận, and Lê Hoàng Anh Thư. "Memoirs of Vietnamese Mothers of War Martyrs | GAS." Hoasen.edu. Dai Hoc Hao Sen, Sept. 2011. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <http://gas.hoasen.edu.vn/en/gas-page/memoirs-vietnamese-mothers-war-martyrs>. Citations Evidence and Analysis National pride is one of the defining features of Vietnamese culture, now and throughout history. Not only have the Vietnamese always succeeded in eventually repelling invaders, but they also have accomplished it against world powers; the United States, the Chinese, and the French. The Trung Sisters led the first nationally successful rebellion against foreign invaders, driving out the Han dynasty and setting the precedent for female fighters in Vietnam [1][2]. The nationalistic values of the Vietnamese have been so instilled in their culture that celebrations and remembrances are still held yearly in honor of the Trung Sisters victory in 40 AD. Dedication to country and national pride are a constant in the lives of Vietnam's people due to their consistent resilience to the influence of outside cultures and invaders. The culture of Vietnam has outlasted invasions in 40 AD and 938 AD against the Chinese and it has outlasted colonization by the French for nearly a century from 1858 until 1954 [1][5][7][9][12].
The Vietnamese people did not hope for victory, they assured that it would be theirs. Recent leaders like Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap have inspired the people to not only resist the influence and oppression of foreigners, but have also reminded them that independence is a reachable goal [8]. Even Ho Chi Minh, an international figure of communism, is known as a nationalist first and communist second [8]. The Vietnamese are always in agreement for the most part when it comes to nationalism, as all resistance movements have been led by leaders that represent the people as a whole; the Trung Sisters, Gai Long, and Ho Chi Minh [1][6][8]. Rising up from across the country and living in the jungles, the Vietminh are the most recent example of resistance to foreign domination, ousting the French, Japanese, and United States [8]. A testament to the strength of dedication of the Vietnamese is the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Before the battle had even begun, the Vietnamese had worked tirelessly to haul supplies and artillery to the mountains surrounding the base by foot [3][4][12]. Despite losing nearly triple the amount that the French lost in men, the Vietnamese were victorious due to their zeal and dedication, winning the First Indochina War [3][4]. Comparing the dedication of the French to the dedication of the Vietnamese, there is no comparison. The French lost the war, then ran for assistance.
Some Vietnamese, especially women, have felt the lasting pain of war but have shouldered the burden willingly nonetheless [7]. Women fighters and widows face the everyday challenges of lameness and birth defects, yet press on in remembrance of their national identity and pride, inspired by heroes of the past such as the Trung Sisters [19]. The owner of the Warren restaurant Pho Viet is a Vietnamese immigrant who, despite living through the hardships of the struggle for independence, refuses to speak on the matter of Vietnamese nationalism. His son, a second generation immigrant, refuses as well. Why they do not choose to speak on the matter is entirely up to guessing, but given the past actions of the Vietnamese, this seems to be an answer in itself.
Vietnamese nationalism is self-explanatory if one just looks at their struggle and success over the course of history. The Vietnamese have always stood by themselves and for themselves, living and dedicating their lives to forging a brighter future for Vietnam as a nation without oppressing others [1][8]. The fierce nationalism of the Vietnamese is something so ingrained in their culture that thinking of the people and the idea separately is impossible. The Vietnamese are so nationalistic because they have to be to retain their culture, country, and pride to which they are so dedicated. Nationalism is the strongest bond between the people of Vietnam and it is used to hold together what is most important to the Vietnamese, their country.
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