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Kharma Cassell - Ancient Japan

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Kharma Cassell

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of Kharma Cassell - Ancient Japan

By Kharma Cassell
Mini-Project for
Ancient Japan

Chapter 21
-Heian period is called the Golden Age
-Aristocrats helped flourish culture
-Created art and literature forms
-Emperor Kammu moved the capital to present day Tokyo
-Did so because he thought the Buddhist priest power was damaging the government
-Also because he wanted a larger city
-The city was called Heian-kyo then became Kyoto
-Elegant city
-Like Nara, laid out in a checkerboard pattern
-Crisscrossing streets
-Fujiwara family were family of rich nobles
-Gained power in tricky ways
-Children married into the royal family
-Acted as advisers to the emperor
-Coxed old emperors to retire so their family could rule
-Fujiwara Michinaga ruled from 995-1028
-He was the most successful ruler
-The social ranks were very important
-9 ranks, nobles were the top 3, less important officals filled the 4th and 5th
-6th-9th ranks minor, officals, clerks, and experts
-Muraslaki Shikibu was best known Heian writer
-So was Sei Shonagon
-Both wrote really good books
-"The Tale Of Genji", "Pillow Books"
-In the Heian court the country side weakened
-Gave large estates to nobles
-After many years Minamoto Yoritomo took over Japan
-The Heian influenced Japanese writing, martial arts, and books
-The books written then are still classics today
Chapter 20
-From the 6th to 9th century Japans neighbors influenced their culture
-The Chinese were the main source of knowledge
-593 Prince Shotoku came into power
-The more contact Japan had with the mainland the quicker cultural diffusion quickened
-Over next 3 centuries Japan sent ships to Korea to bring back new knowledge
-From this they learned government ideas, architecture, writing, and arts
-604 the japanese began using chinese form of government
-Prince created the Seventeen Article Constitution
-645 emperor Tenchi created the Taika Reforms
-Was used to strengthen central government
-In the 700's Their government had become much like china's with their bureaucracy
-The difference was in the 9th century aristocracy was made
-710 the imperial government built their capital on the modern site of Nara
-It was 8 miles and had no more than 200,000 people
-Unlike Chinese capital, Nara didnt have a protection wall
-Buddhism began in 500 b.c. came to Japan 1,000 years later
-The original religion was Shinto
-Represented their love of nature, stresses purifying
-The religion celebrates life/beauty of nature
-Buddhists see life full of pain and sadness
-As Buddhism spread through India Mahyana was made
-In 552 Mahayana came to Japan
-Japanese was first only a spoken language but they copied Chinese and began to write it down
-They began using Kanji to write Japanese
-It made it easier to keep record of things but writing in the Chinese style was hard
-In 900's the Japan people created Kana (borrowed letters)
-7th to 8th century the earliest poems were made
-Tanka is based on a set of syllables
-Sculptures came to Japan from China but started in India
-4th to 5th century burial mound sculptures found
-Buddhism inspired new subjects for the sculptures
-The Chinese made the stone Buddha
-Represented waterfalls, love and peace
-Korea made Buddha out of bronze
-7th century Japanese carved wood
-Architecture came from India by way of China
-The Chinese made pagodas, 3,5,7 roofs
-Music consisted of chanted poems, war songs, prayers
-6th century bagaku was Chinese music court
-The Japanese considered white teeth unattractive
-Used a die made from iron to blacken
-Smell was important so they wore different scents
-Makeup was idalistic
-Women painted their faces white, plucked out eyebrows and drew them on higher up on the forehead
-painted small red mouth and bits of red on their cheeks
-Wealthy women wore 10-12 silk robes at a time
-Different entertainment activities were, horse races, archery contests, sumo wrestling, and boat races
- In sculpting wood they differed with their styles
-Instead of carving from one big piece of wood they carved little separate pieces and put together
-Jocho was an awesome artist
-Worked for Fujiwara Michinaga
-New form of painting was Yamato-e
-Used to distinguish from the chinese style
-Used it to paint Buddha sculptures then religious scenes
-Katakana was a way of writing syllabals in a more formal way
-Hiragana was a way for simple stories made with simple short, fast strokes
-This made reading easier and faster
(Chapter 22)
-Minamoto Yoritomo gained power used the name shogun
-Instead of emperor he set up military government
-14th century shogun ruled with daimyos
-15th century Japan fell in chaos and fought battles
-1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu made Japan peaceful
-Moved the capital to Edo (present day Tokyo)
-lots of prized armor
-Consisted of a kimono, baggy trousers, shin guards, box like panels, metal sleeves and a mean iron mask
-Their weapons were spears, swords, and the bow and arrow
-Their training was hard and extensive
-Archery masters had apprentices who taught them mental and physical techniques
-Learned swordsman ship
-Trained in martial arts
-For the Samurai battle was unique
-They sent messengers and had a formal ceremony
-Supposed to pick people to fight that would be in the same rank as you
-The mind set required for being a Samurai was different
-You weren't allowed to be afraid of death
-Meditate on their own death
-They at times would go days without food to show they had no morals
-The Samurai also practiced calligraphy and poetry
-The tools used were a brush, ink block and paper silk
-The tea ceremony was a very involved process
-Lots of formal drinking, wipe the rim pass it on
-Amida Buddhism was when monks believed monks believed all people could reach "paradise"
-Honen founded it
-Zen Buddhism applied to the Samurai
-It emphasized effort and disciplen
-The Code of Bushido was what the Samurai were governed by
-Called on them to be honest, fair and fearless
-Seppuku was the price for failing to do so
-It was a ritual for suicide
-Cut across their abdomen with four slices while awake
-12th to 17th centuries women's status declined greatly
-In the 12th century women were apart of the warrior class in Japan
-These women were respected and treated with honor
-Then later women became less and less important and were then expected to stay at home
-Became stay at home wife's as husbands became much more important
-Similarities were that they both had ties of loyalty, and obligation and instead of emperors they had military leaders
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