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AP Euro

Kristin Palomares

on 4 December 2012

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Transcript of Imperialism

The Scramble For Africa Forces Driving Imperialism Three Groups Clash Over South Africa Setting The Stage The Division of Africa Africa Before European Domination Taboo Review Imperialism
Social Darwinism
Berlin Conference
Boer War
King Leopold II
Dr. Livingstone
The Great Trek
Maji Maji Rebllion
Menelik II
Ethiopia Africa Was Divided hundreds of linguistic and ethnic groups
traditional beliefs vs. christianity
large empires vs. independent villages 1450s Europeans first established contact with sub-Saharan Africans However... African armies kept Europeans out of most of Africa for 400 years
Africans had highly specialized pre-existing trade networks
Interior of Africa was difficult to navigate without specific technology
Disease discouraged exploration Nations Compete For Overseas Empires Who? Explorers Missionaries Humanitarians "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" 1860s
Missionary from Scotland American newspaper hired him to find Livingstone 1871: Found Livingstone on the shores of Lake Tanganyika Commissioned Stanley to obtain land in the Congo
Established the Belgian Congo, which was 80 times larger than Belgium
Claimed motive for establishing the colony was to abolish the slave trade and promote Christianity
However, he exploited Africans by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants
10 million Congolese died due to his reign Forced the Belgian government to seize Leopold's land
This alarmed France who had interests in the region Dr. Livingstone Henry Stanley Industrial Revolution need for new markets and raw materials Nationalism Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national greatness Many Europeans believed that they were better than other people... Racism Social Darwinism Cecil Rhodes The belief that one race is superior to others Survival of the fittest society Europeans were farther along the evolutionary scale "I contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world...." 1880 France began to expand from the West African Coast to western Sudan 1867 Discovery of Diamonds Berlin Conference With little regard or representation for native Africans, the European powers set about carving up Africa according to the following guidelines: Any sovereign power which wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powers
Any such annexation should be valifated by effective occupation
Treaties with African rulers were to be considred a valid title to soveriegnty Liberia & Ethiopia Only areas of Africa that remained independent by 1900 Zulus Fight The British Zulus: South African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill
Lead by Shaka Zulu
The Zulus were attempting to spread their empire at the same time Britain was. As a result, the two went to war.
The Zulus were defeated because Britain had more advanced technology Boers and British Settle in the Cape The Dutch were the first to settle in South Africa
Boers/Afrikaners (Dutch settlers/farmers) gradually took African land
When the British moved in, the Boers began to move north in the Great Trek where they encountered Zulus The Boer War 1860s & 1880s: Gold and silver were discovered in South Africa
Boers blamed the British for the influx of "outsiders"
Considered the first modern "total" war
Boers used guerrilla tactics while the British burned Boer farms and imprisoned women and children
Britain won and established a colony King Leopold II of Belgium Imperialism Motives Forms Methods Indirect Direct Political Ideological Religious Colony Economic The seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country Exploratory Based on the desire to gain power, nations exercise military force to increase national pride and security Based on the belief that Europeans were superior Based on investigating the unknown Aims to spread European beliefs and values Protectorate Sphere of Influence A country or a territory governed internally by a foreign power A country or a territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges An independent but less-developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments Local government officals used
Limited self-rule
Goal: to develop future leaders
Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules Foreign officals brought in to rule
No self-rule
Goal: assimilation
Government institutions are based only on European styles When is it okay to take over another person or country? How do you maintain power over another? Imperialism Motives, Forms, & Methods Europeans Claim Muslim Lands Ottoman Empire Loses Power Europeans Grab Territory Egypt Initiates Reforms African Resistance Unsuccessful Movements Included active military and religious Maji Maji Rebellion African villagers in German East Africa believed that a magic water (maji-maji) sprinkled on their bodies would turn the Germans' bullets into water Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance Menelik II Emperor
Successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other
Built up a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia
Declared war on Italy after the language in a treaty made him believe he was giving away part of his land
Battle of Adowa: Ethopians successfully defeated the Italians and kept the nation independent Reforms Fail Suleyman I Last great Ottoman sultan died
Caused factions and weakened the economy 1566 1789 Selim III Attempted to modernize the army but the janissary corps resisted his efforts 1830 Greek and Serbian independence movements stir up nationalist feelings in the Ottoman Empire Geopolitics An interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products Crimean War 1830 Russia wanted access to the Black Sea which was controlled by the Ottomans
Britain and France wanted to prevent Russia from gaining too much power so they fight witht he Ottomans
1st war in history where women established their position as army nurses (Florence Nightingale) The Great Game Great Britain and Russia wanted Muslim langs in Cnetral Asia
War over India, Britain's most profitable colonies
Afghanistan became the battle ground because it lay between the Russian and British empires 1869 Connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean
Built with French money but with Egyptian labor
Egypt couldn't pay its European bankers the interest on its $450 million debt due to other modernization efforts
Britain took financial control of the canal Suez Canal Debate "All countries should have equal access to strategic waterways such as the Suez Canal" Taboo Review Suleyman I
Selim III
Crimean War
Florence Nightingale
The Great Game
Suez Canal 1790s Mid 19th C Opium War China Resists Outside Influence China & The West Growing Internal Problems Foreign Influence Grows The Sepoy Mutiny Setting The Stage Shooting An Elephant How did the British expand control over India? British Imperialism In India Joint-Stock Company British East India Company Began in 1600s
Established trading posts
Mughal Empire was collapsing East India Company Dominates British government regulated the company
Company had its own army staffed by sepoys (Indian Soldiers) Jewel In The Crown Major supplier of raw materials and potentially large market for British goods Britain set up restrictions that prevented the Indian economy from operating on its own... India could only sell materials to and purchase goods from Britain
Britain prohibited Indian competition with British goods Railroads Transported plantation crops (tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, cotton, & jute) 8 min AP Only Sparked by a rumor that the sepoys were using beef and pork fat to grease the cartridges of their rifles Hindus Muslims Cow is sacred Don't eat pork When 85 of the 90 Sepoys refussed to accept the cartridges, the British put them in jail It took the East India Company more than a year to put down the rebellion As a result, the British government took direct command of India Raj Refers to British rule during Queen Victoria's reign George Orwell's Taboo Review Sepoy
Joint-Stock Company
Jewel In The Crown
Sepoy Mutiny
George Orwell China was not interested in the "strange objects" that the West was offering China was self-sufficient Agriculture; rice, maize, sweet potatoes
Mining/manufacturing; salt, tin, silver, iron
Production: silk, cotton, porcelain Large Population Favorable Balance of Trade China Opium Made from the poppy plant
Chinese had been using it to relieve pain for hundreds of years
As a result of the British, 12 million Chinese people were addicted by 1835 1800s Until Qing emperor was angry so he wrote a letter to Queen Victoria about the problem
Britain refussed to stop trading opium
Took place mostly at sea
China's outdated ships were no match for Britain's steam-powered gunboats Treaty of Nanking China gave up trading rights in many ports
Hong Kong went to Britain
Extraterritoriality: foreigners were not subject to Chinese law (at certain ports) 14 min Population Boom 430 Million by 1850 (30% gain in only 60 years)
Food production couldn't match pace Qing Dynasty Chinese began to rebel against Taiping Rebellion "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace" All Chinese people would share China's wealth
Started in the South
Peasant army of one million
Eventually Nanking was captured and declared the new capital Chinese word for "great peace" Government leaders feuded among themselves
Qing, British, and French forces all launched attacks
At least 20 million died in the rebellion Taiping Faces Obstacles Dowager Empress Cixi tsoo-shee Held power of the Qing imperial palace
Backed the self-strengthening movement (education, diplomacy, military)
Set-up factories to manufacture steam-powered items Sphere of Influence Foreign nations take advantage of China
Poor treaty negotiations led to European control
An area in which a foreign nation controlled trade and investment Open Door Policy U.S. worried that other nations would divide China into formal colonies and shut out American traders
Solution was to open China's "doors" to merchants of all nations An Upsurge in Chinese Nationalism Emperor Guangxu gwahng-shoo Chinese wanted strong reforms to remove outside influence
Attempted to modernize
Many Qing officials saw efforts as threatening their power so they called back the Dowager Empress
She arrested Guangxu, reversed his reforms The Boxer Rebellion Poor peasants and workers resented special privileges granted to foreigners and Chinese Christains who adopted a foreign faith Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists Secret organization
Kept Beijing under siege for several months
Dowager Empress supported the Boxers but did not provide military aid
Multinational force of 19,000 troops defeated Boxers
Despite losing, naitonalism grew 1900 3:30 Write a dialogue between two of Dowager Empress Cixi's advisers- one arguing for continued isolation, the other for openness to foreign influence and trade. Opium War
Taiping Rebellion
Sphere of Influence
Open Door Policy
Boxer Rebellion
Dowager Empress Cixi
Emperor Guangzu
Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace
Treaty of Nanking Taboo Review Meiji Reform and Modernization Storyteller Sino-Japanese War Setting The Stage Russo-Japanese War Japan Ends Its Isolation Modernization In Japan 17th Century Isolationists
Tokugawa shoguns practiced feudalism The demand for foreign trade... Westerners wanted access but Japan refussed
Massive black wooden ships powered by steam wowed the region
Shogunate welcomed Perry U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry U.S. President sent a letter that asked for free trade
Perry delivered it with a threat (we will come back with a larger fleet) Treaty of Kanagawa Japan opened two ports
Cont. of Open Door Policy Mutsuhito moot-soo-HEE-toh Japanese were angry with the shogun
Turned towards the young emperor because he symbolized nationalism
Tokugawa stepped down, ending the military dictatorship Meiji Restoration "enlightened rule"
lasted 45 years
Modernized/Westernized Japan Japan forced Korea to open three ports to trade
China considered area an important trade/military outpost
Resulted in a "hands-off" agreement China broke promise in order to help Korea's king put down rebellions
Japan sent troops, pushed China out of Korea, destroyed the Chinese navy, and gained parts of Manchuria
Treaty resulted in Japan's first colonies (Taiwan, etc.) Japan and Russia fought over Manchuria
Japan offered to recognize Russia's rights in the region if Russia would agree to stay out of Korea
Russians refussed Japan launched a surprise attack and destroyed most of Russia's fleet
U.S. President Roosevelt helped draft peace treaty
Gave Japan captured territories and forced Russia to withdraw from Manchuria Treaty of Portsmouth Taboo Review Matthew Perry
Millard Fillmore
Treaty of Kanagawa
Meiji Restoration
Emperor Mutsuhito
Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
Treaty of Portsmouth
Annexation Annexation Japan brought Korea into their control
Ruled harshly
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