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Imperialism

AP Euro
by

Kristin Palomares

on 14 November 2017

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Transcript of Imperialism

The Scramble For Africa
Forces Driving Imperialism
Three Groups Clash Over South Africa
Setting The Stage
The Division of Africa
Africa Before European Domination
Taboo Review
Imperialism
Racism
Social Darwinism
Berlin Conference
Shaka
Boer/Afrikaner
Boer War
King Leopold II
Dr. Livingstone
The Great Trek
Maji Maji Rebllion
Menelik II
Ethiopia
Africa Was Divided
hundreds of linguistic and ethnic groups
traditional beliefs vs. christianity
large empires vs. independent villages
1450s
Europeans first established contact with sub-Saharan Africans
However...
African armies kept Europeans out of most of Africa for 400 years
Africans had highly specialized pre-existing trade networks
Interior of Africa was difficult to navigate without specific technology
Disease discouraged exploration
Nations Compete For Overseas Empires
Who?
Explorers
Missionaries
Humanitarians
"Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
1860s
Missionary from Scotland
American newspaper hired him to find Livingstone
1871: Found Livingstone on the shores of Lake Tanganyika
Commissioned Stanley to obtain land in the Congo
Established the Belgian Congo, which was 80 times larger than Belgium
Claimed motive for establishing the colony was to abolish the slave trade and promote Christianity
However, he exploited Africans by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants
10 million Congolese died due to his reign
Forced the Belgian government to seize Leopold's land
This alarmed France who had interests in the region
Dr. Livingstone
Henry Stanley
Industrial Revolution
need for new markets and raw materials
Nationalism
Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of national greatness
Many Europeans believed that they were better than other people...
Racism
Social Darwinism
Cecil Rhodes
The belief that one race is superior to others
Survival of the fittest society
Europeans were farther along the evolutionary scale
"I contend that we [Britons] are the first race in the world...."
1880
France began to expand from the West African Coast to western Sudan
1867
Discovery of Diamonds
Berlin Conference
With little regard or representation for native Africans, the European powers set about carving up Africa according to the following guidelines:
Any sovereign power which wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powers
Any such annexation should be valifated by effective occupation
Treaties with African rulers were to be considred a valid title to soveriegnty
Liberia & Ethiopia
Only areas of Africa that remained independent by 1900
Zulus Fight The British
Zulus: South African tribe that placed an emphasis on military organization and skill
Lead by Shaka Zulu
The Zulus were attempting to spread their empire at the same time Britain was. As a result, the two went to war.
The Zulus were defeated because Britain had more advanced technology
Boers and British Settle in the Cape
The Dutch were the first to settle in South Africa
Boers/Afrikaners (Dutch settlers/farmers) gradually took African land
When the British moved in, the Boers began to move north in the Great Trek where they encountered Zulus
The Boer War
1860s & 1880s: Gold and silver were discovered in South Africa
Boers blamed the British for the influx of "outsiders"
Considered the first modern "total" war
Boers used guerrilla tactics while the British burned Boer farms and imprisoned women and children
Britain won and established a colony
King Leopold II of Belgium
Imperialism
Motives
Forms
Methods
Indirect
Direct
Political
Ideological
Religious
Colony
Economic
The seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country
Exploratory
Based on the desire to gain power, nations exercise military force to increase national pride and security
Based on the belief that Europeans were superior
Based on investigating the unknown
Aims to spread European beliefs and values
Protectorate
Sphere of Influence
A country or a territory governed internally by a foreign power
A country or a territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power
An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges
An independent but less-developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments
Local government officals used
Limited self-rule
Goal: to develop future leaders
Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules
Foreign officals brought in to rule
No self-rule
Goal: assimilation
Government institutions are based only on European styles
When is it okay to take over another person or country?
How do you maintain power over another?
Imperialism
Motives, Forms, & Methods
Europeans Claim Muslim Lands
Ottoman Empire Loses Power
Europeans Grab Territory
Egypt Initiates Reforms
African Resistance
Unsuccessful Movements
Included active military and religious
Maji Maji Rebellion
African villagers in German East Africa believed that a magic water (maji-maji) sprinkled on their bodies would turn the Germans' bullets into water
Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance
Menelik II
Emperor
Successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other
Built up a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia
Declared war on Italy after the language in a treaty made him believe he was giving away part of his land
Battle of Adowa: Ethopians successfully defeated the Italians and kept the nation independent
Reforms Fail
Suleyman I
Last great Ottoman sultan died
Caused factions and weakened the economy
1566
1789
Selim III
Attempted to modernize the army but the janissary corps resisted his efforts
1830
Greek and Serbian independence movements stir up nationalist feelings in the Ottoman Empire
Geopolitics
An interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products
Crimean War
1830
Russia wanted access to the Black Sea which was controlled by the Ottomans
Britain and France wanted to prevent Russia from gaining too much power so they fight witht he Ottomans
1st war in history where women established their position as army nurses (Florence Nightingale)
The Great Game
Great Britain and Russia wanted Muslim langs in Cnetral Asia
War over India, Britain's most profitable colonies
Afghanistan became the battle ground because it lay between the Russian and British empires
1869
Connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean
Built with French money but with Egyptian labor
Egypt couldn't pay its European bankers the interest on its $450 million debt due to other modernization efforts
Britain took financial control of the canal
Suez Canal
Debate
"All countries should have equal access to strategic waterways such as the Suez Canal"
Taboo Review
Suleyman I
Selim III
Geopolitics
Crimean War
Florence Nightingale
The Great Game
Suez Canal
1790s
Mid 19th C
Opium War
China Resists Outside Influence
China & The West
Growing Internal Problems
Foreign Influence Grows
The Sepoy Mutiny
Setting The Stage
Shooting An Elephant
How did the British expand control over India?
British Imperialism In India
Joint-Stock Company
British East India Company
Began in 1600s
Established trading posts
Mughal Empire was collapsing
East India Company Dominates
British government regulated the company
Company had its own army staffed by sepoys (Indian Soldiers)
Jewel In The Crown
Major supplier of raw materials and potentially large market for British goods
Britain set up restrictions that prevented the Indian economy from operating on its own...
India could only sell materials to and purchase goods from Britain
Britain prohibited Indian competition with British goods
Railroads
Transported plantation crops (tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, cotton, & jute)
8 min
AP Only
Sparked by a rumor that the sepoys were using beef and pork fat to grease the cartridges of their rifles
Hindus
Muslims
Cow is sacred
Don't eat pork
When 85 of the 90 Sepoys refussed to accept the cartridges, the British put them in jail
It took the East India Company more than a year to put down the rebellion
As a result, the British government took direct command of India
Raj
Refers to British rule during Queen Victoria's reign
George Orwell's
Taboo Review
Sepoy
Joint-Stock Company
Jewel In The Crown
Sepoy Mutiny
Raj
George Orwell
China was not interested in the "strange objects" that the West was offering
China was self-sufficient
Agriculture; rice, maize, sweet potatoes
Mining/manufacturing; salt, tin, silver, iron
Production: silk, cotton, porcelain
Large Population
Favorable Balance of Trade
China
Opium
Made from the poppy plant
Habit-forming
Chinese had been using it to relieve pain for hundreds of years
As a result of the British, 12 million Chinese people were addicted by 1835
1800s
Until
Qing emperor was angry so he wrote a letter to Queen Victoria about the problem
Britain refussed to stop trading opium
Took place mostly at sea
China's outdated ships were no match for Britain's steam-powered gunboats
Treaty of Nanking
China gave up trading rights in many ports
Hong Kong went to Britain
Extraterritoriality: foreigners were not subject to Chinese law (at certain ports)
14 min
Population Boom
430 Million by 1850 (30% gain in only 60 years)
Food production couldn't match pace
Qing Dynasty
Chinese began to rebel against
Taiping Rebellion
"Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace"
All Chinese people would share China's wealth
Started in the South
Peasant army of one million
Eventually Nanking was captured and declared the new capital
Chinese word for "great peace"
Government leaders feuded among themselves
Qing, British, and French forces all launched attacks
At least 20 million died in the rebellion
Taiping Faces Obstacles
Dowager Empress Cixi
tsoo-shee
Held power of the Qing imperial palace
Backed the self-strengthening movement (education, diplomacy, military)
Set-up factories to manufacture steam-powered items
Sphere of Influence
Foreign nations take advantage of China
Poor treaty negotiations led to European control
An area in which a foreign nation controlled trade and investment
Open Door Policy
U.S. worried that other nations would divide China into formal colonies and shut out American traders
Solution was to open China's "doors" to merchants of all nations
An Upsurge in Chinese Nationalism
Emperor Guangxu
gwahng-shoo
Chinese wanted strong reforms to remove outside influence
Attempted to modernize
Many Qing officials saw efforts as threatening their power so they called back the Dowager Empress
She arrested Guangxu, reversed his reforms
The Boxer Rebellion
Poor peasants and workers resented special privileges granted to foreigners and Chinese Christains who adopted a foreign faith
Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
Secret organization
Kept Beijing under siege for several months
Dowager Empress supported the Boxers but did not provide military aid
Multinational force of 19,000 troops defeated Boxers
Despite losing, naitonalism grew
1900
3:30
Write a dialogue between two of Dowager Empress Cixi's advisers- one arguing for continued isolation, the other for openness to foreign influence and trade.
Opium War
Extraterritoriality
Taiping Rebellion
Sphere of Influence
Open Door Policy
Boxer Rebellion
Dowager Empress Cixi
Emperor Guangzu
Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace
Treaty of Nanking
Taboo Review
Meiji Reform and Modernization
Storyteller
Sino-Japanese War
Setting The Stage
Russo-Japanese War
Japan Ends Its Isolation
Modernization In Japan
17th Century
Isolationists
Tokugawa shoguns practiced feudalism
The demand for foreign trade...
Westerners wanted access but Japan refussed
Massive black wooden ships powered by steam wowed the region
Shogunate welcomed Perry
U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry
U.S. President sent a letter that asked for free trade
Perry delivered it with a threat (we will come back with a larger fleet)
Treaty of Kanagawa
Japan opened two ports
Cont. of Open Door Policy
Mutsuhito
moot-soo-HEE-toh
Japanese were angry with the shogun
Turned towards the young emperor because he symbolized nationalism
Tokugawa stepped down, ending the military dictatorship
Meiji Restoration
"enlightened rule"
lasted 45 years
Modernized/Westernized Japan
Japan forced Korea to open three ports to trade
China considered area an important trade/military outpost
Resulted in a "hands-off" agreement
China broke promise in order to help Korea's king put down rebellions
Japan sent troops, pushed China out of Korea, destroyed the Chinese navy, and gained parts of Manchuria
Treaty resulted in Japan's first colonies (Taiwan, etc.)
Japan and Russia fought over Manchuria
Japan offered to recognize Russia's rights in the region if Russia would agree to stay out of Korea
Russians refussed
Japan launched a surprise attack and destroyed most of Russia's fleet
U.S. President Roosevelt helped draft peace treaty
Gave Japan captured territories and forced Russia to withdraw from Manchuria
Treaty of Portsmouth
Taboo Review
Matthew Perry
Millard Fillmore
Treaty of Kanagawa
Meiji Restoration
Emperor Mutsuhito
Westernization
Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
Treaty of Portsmouth
Manchuria
Annexation
Annexation
Japan brought Korea into their control
Ruled harshly
Full transcript