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Time in Text
Transcript of Time in Text
What is it and why do we need it?
WHAT Constitutes Time in Text?
When do we have students in text?
Whole Group Strategies
Small Group Strategies
Independent Work Time
Out of Class activities/homework
HOW do we match students to text?
words in their oral working vocabularies
60,000-90,000 for College/Career
Readiness. RL/RI 10
To keep pace with grade level
expectations students need a gain of 4000-5000 words each year!
K. Stanovich/ S. Stahl
In general, students arrive in kindergarten with
This study revealed truly staggering differ-
ences between children in amount of out-of-
school reading. The wide variation is evident on
every measure summarized in Table 3. Notice
that most children do little reading, while suc-
cessive groups of children read for increasingly
long periods of time and cover increasingly
large numbers of words. For instance, the child
who is at the 90th percentile in amount of book
reading spends nearly five times as many min-
utes per day reading books as the child at the
50th percentile, and over two hundred times as
many minutes per day reading books as the
child at the 10th percentile.
The study suggests that teachers have an
important influence on how much time children
spend reading books during after-school hours.
The class that did the most reading read 3.6
times as much on the average as the class that
did the least reading, after discounting differ-
ences in second-grade reading level and propor-
tions of boys and girls. Among the things
teachers do to promote reading are assuring ac-
cess to interesting books at a suitable level of
difficulty, using incentives to increase motiva-
tion for reading, reading aloud to children, and
providing time for reading during the school day.
More interesting, and important, is
the fact that time spent reading books was the
best predictor of a child's growth as a reader
from the second to the fifth grade.
Stanovich, Keith E. (1986). "Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy". Reading Research Quarterly 21 (4): 360–407.
In the words of Stanovich:
Slow reading acquisition has cognitive, behavioral, and motivational consequences that slow the development of other cognitive skills and inhibit performance on many academic tasks. In short, as reading develops, other cognitive processes linked to it track the level of reading skill. Knowledge bases that are in reciprocal relationships with reading are also inhibited from further development. The longer this developmental sequence is allowed to continue, the more generalized the deficits will become, seeping into more and more areas of cognition and behavior. Or to put it more simply – and sadly – in the words of a tearful nine-year-old, already falling frustratingly behind his peers in reading progress, "Reading affects everything you do".
The rich get richer, the poor get poorer!
Why do we
Keep in mind...
Students ability to read complex text does not always develop in a linear fashion.
Students reading well above and well below grade-level band need additional support.
Even many students on course for college and career readiness are likely to need scaffolding as they master higher levels of text complexity.
Readers and Task Appendix A (NGA Center & CCSSO, 2010b
“The poor and the affluent are not communicating because they do not have the same words. When we talk of the millions who are culturally deprived, we refer not to those who do not have access to good libraries and bookstores, or to museums and centers for the performing arts, but those deprived of the words with which everything else is built, the words that open doors. Children without words are licked before they start. The legion of the young wordless in urban and rural slums, eight to ten years old, do not know the meaning of hundreds of words which most middle-class people assume to be familiar to much younger children. Most of them have never seen their parents read a book or a magazine, or heard words used in other than rudimentary ways related to physical needs and functions. Thus is cultural fallout caused, the vicious circle of ignorance and poverty reinforced and perpetuated. Children deprived of words become school dropouts; dropouts deprived of hope behave delinquently. Amateur censors blame delinquency on reading immoral books and magazines, when in fact, the inability to read anything is the basic trouble.” Peter S. Jennison