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Unit 5 - Contextual studies

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Betsy

on 21 April 2016

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Transcript of Unit 5 - Contextual studies

Introduction
This presentation will give a small insight on the evolution of art throughout history and how it influences us today. I will express this by looking to different art movements and then analyzing them. I will include designers, examples of their work and historical events that were happening around the time of the particular movement to see if, at all, it was a representation or influence or said movement.
Contextual Studies - Unit 5
Betsy Humberstone
Graphic Design - Level 3
Tutor - Sharon Drysdale

Stone Age
The 'Stone Age' era got its name because it was the period in which stone was widely used to make implements with a sharp edge, a point, or a percussion surface and is the first known time frame of human culture. It is believed that the Stone Age lasted from 3000BC until 2500BC, it began with the first use of stone and ended at the first use of Iron. The Stone Age has been separated into 3 periods; Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) and Neolithic (New Stone Age).
'Stonehenge' Wiltshire, England.
Mesopotamian
Egyptian
The Stone Age Periods
The Paleolithic or Old Stone Age period was not only the longest ice age period (accounting for around 98% of the entire era) but is also the longest phase of human history. It began at the first known production of stone implements and lasted until the end of the last ice age, when Iron was introduced. The most dominant feature of this period was the evolution of the human species from an 'apelike creature', however, this process did take a seemingly long time as was split into 3 definitive periods; the Lower Paleolithic period, Middle Paleolithic period and Upper Paleolithic period. It is recorded that by the end of the Upper Paleolithic period there has been a number of developments such as hunting, sewn clothing, cave painting and structured housing.
The middle stage of the Ice Age is known as the Mesolithic Age which began at the end of the last glacial year, the last cold snap, around 9,600 BCE. This is the age of Agriculture and hunter-gatherers, the Mesolithic hunter achieved a greater efficiency than did the Paleolithic hunters did meaning they were able to hunt a wider range of species and use their resources more efficiently, adapting to their environment and developing tools such as the bow and arrow. Adapting to their environment came with many positives such as settled communities.
The Neolithic, or, New Stone Age was the last of the Stone Age periods and varied depending on geographical location. This was the introduction of farming, cereal cultivation and animal domestication. This period is identified by stone tools shaped by polishing and/or grinding, settling in permanent villages, and crafts (pottery and weaving).
Stone Age Art
The word 'art' is a loose term and in this instance could mean anything from a sculptured rock to a cave painting. There are three types of art found within the Stone Age; cupules, rock art/cave paintings, and sculptures & carvings.
Cupules are cup shaped and pounded out of rock surface. They are often found in clusters and can also vary in pattern, such as in geometric shapes. They have been found on every continent, excluding Antarctica.
Rock art and cave paintings are considered the type face of the pre-historic period. It was used to portray emotions and even tell stories, they are often referred to as Pictographs.
Sculptures and carvings were very popular within this era, they were separated into four different sections; Ultra-Primitive humanoid objects which some doubt is art, Primitive relief sculpture, Venus Figurines carved from bone and rock, and Figurative Carvings of human figures and animals made out of ivory.
A Major Event
The biggest event to happen within the Ice Age period was the transition from ape-like creatures to homosapians whom settled into stable communities with a flourishing food supply and domesticated animals. This influenced trading and being able to produce more food to supply the demand, similar to today's society and how it works.
Interior
Stone Age living was a little cold. There are many theories as to where people lived, in caves? Huts? Teepees? Settlements? The answer is that all of them were very common, it just depended on your geographical location. For example, Karain Cave a few kilometers north of Antalya sheltered few people as there were only a limited amount of chambers whereas those who lived in warmer parts of the world would use huts/teepees in the summer and live by the coast in winter. The teepees would consist of a wooden frame layered with animal hides and bark.
Fashion
Fashion in the stone age was rather limited, infact, they were the trend setters of history. The stone age is the first know use of clothing in history,usually made out of animal hides. The skin would usually be hanged, scraped, washed, stretched out and worn. However, there is some evidence of 'string skirts' worn in Russia.
Textiles
Venus figurines are a main example for textiles in this period. They are Upper Paleolithic statues portraying women mostly found in Europe but have also been found in Siberia and the Mediterranean. They were carved from stone, bone, ivory, clay or limestone.
Examples
Mesopotamia, translated in Greek meaning 'land between two rivers' was an area known as 'Al-Jazirah' (the Island) between the Tigris-Euphrates rivers, more known today as Iraq, Syria, Kuwait and surrounding areas. Mesopotamia was deemed 'The cradle of civilisation' because of the two development that occured there; 1. the rise of the City, still used today and 2. the invention of writing.
Mesopotamian art
It is often believed that the civilisations of Mesopotamia are the source of the oldest art pieces, dating as far back as 35,000 B.C.E. This period of art was created to glorify rulers of the time, as to make them feel powerful and boost their egos which is why many of the creators names are not found on the art itself; they were created to signify and potray the model, not the artist. These pieces were made using natural resources such as stone, marble and shells. Not only was this the defining moment within artistic history, but also the first use of written communication.
Typeface
One major civilizations that flourished during the Mesopotamian time were the Sumerians 3500-2300 BC whom are believed to have created the first written form of communication that has evolved over time into what we use today, it is knows as the Sumerian cuneiform.Its origins can be traced back to around 8,000 BC and it developed from the pictographs used in the Stone Age to represent trade goods and livestock. Originally the Sumerians made small tokens out of clay to represent the items but later realised that the tokens were not neceserry as they could make the symbols using clay. The name cuneiform means wedge-shaped and comes from the Latin cuneus (wedge). It is based on the appearance of the strokes which were created by pressing a reed stylus into clay (this type of symbol emerged in 3,000 BC).
Textiles
People often traded foods like flax, textiles (clothes or goods made by weaving, knitting or felting) and oils in return for wine, precious metals and building material. They would often build up their empires or transportation as these were the two defining factors of their livelihoods.
Interior
Although no examples of the Mesopotamian furniture survived until the present day, mostly because the weather was not the best at preserving the material, there is an understanding of at the furniture and decorations were like. It is believed that furnishings were often decorated in golden cloths, symbolizing wealth. This type of decoration followed into the Egyptian era, which I will soon delve into.
Major events
Art examples
Fashion
Clothing during the beginning of the Mesopotamian era was very much similar to that of the stone age, they used animal hide to protect themselves from the harsh weather. However, the Mesopotamian people finally developed a way of weaving and pounding wool into cloth. Wool was used widely for every garment, from shoes to cloaks. But, wool was mainly used by the poorer individuals. The wealthier individuals, priests and dressing the statues of gods, wore linen. More luxurious fabrics were developed later, such as soft cotton and silk, but these were again worn the wealthy.
There were many developments made by the Mesopotamians many of which we still use today. They created things such as the wheel, the chariot, agriculture and irrigation, the first form of written communication (Cuneiforms), maths, lock and key, time (hours, minutes, and seconds), maps, sailboats, astrology and the plow. They were extremely advanced for their time.
Egyptian art
The egyptian era is the most well known historical period for ancient art. You have to view these pieces of art as if you are living as an Egyptian yourself, otherwise, the art may not make sense. Many of the surviving art pieces we see today are that of celebration, they are found on tombs and monuments, meaning they are a symbolic piece; they symbolise life after death.
Typeface
Textiles
During the Egyptian era textiles were used for many purposes. Primarily clothing, bags, sails, ropes, and nets. Egyptian textiles were usually made of linen which comes from the flax plant. Textiles were also made from palm fibers, grass, seeds, and rarely from sheep's wool and goat hair. For dressing and outer garment, Egyptians wore a high-quality linen with superfine weave
Interior
Egyptian houses were primarily built with sun-dried bricks or reed matting smeared with clay. Furniture in this time varied depending on wealth and time period, for example, chairs would usually be designed with animal-style feet and in richer homes there would be a cluster of chairs rather than just one, like the poorer homes. Most furniture would be painted with rich colours or accessorized with fine stones and inset jewels, they would also be styled to imitate animals such as gazelles or crocodiles.
Major events
Art examples
Fashion
Egyptians wore garments made from linen (flax) which meant they were lightweight as it was remarkably hot during this time period. Clothing between genders, age and status varied. Men wore a kilt like garment and which varied length depending on fashion at the time. Women wore full length dresses with shoulder straps and, during the New Kingdom, it became fashionable to drape and pleat the dresses. Children usually remained unclothes until the age of 6 when they would dress appropriately to their gender. The rich usually wore the expensive linen which was almost see-through. They frequently dressed up their outfit with jewelery and headpieces. As for shoes, most Egyptians went without footwear unless it was a special occasion or a hot day then they would wear sandals. Sandals worn by the poor were woven from papyrus or palm whereas those worn by the wealthy were made of leather.
Cleopatra VII was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, ruling Egypt from 51 BC - 30 BC. She is celebrated for her beauty and her love affairs with the Roman warlords Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she had twins; Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios. They also had another son; Ptolemy Philadelphus. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide and Cleopatra soon followed. According to tradition, she killed herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC (According to Plutarch, Cleopatra tested various deadly poisons on condemned persons and decided that the 'bite of the asp' (Egyptian cobra) was the least terrible way to die; the venom brought sleepiness and heaviness without spasms of pain. To this day, Cleopatra remains a source of fascination in Western culture. She is the main focus in numerous works of art and many dramatizations of incidents from her life in film and literature, including William Shakespeare's tragedy .Antony and Cleopatra'.

Egypt is a country in North Africa and is considered one of the eldest civilisatons on earth. The name Egypt comes from the Greek aegyptos- their pronuniation of the Egyptian name 'Hwt-Ka-Ptah' which means "House of the Spirit of Ptah", who was a very early God of the Ancient egyptians).
The Ancient Egyptians then created the hieroglyphics (3500 BCE – 400 CE). Based on the pictogram and cuniform, they share the same concept however a hieroglyphic may have several different meanings to one symbol, similar to the English language e.g. 'their', 'there' and 'they're' all sound the same but have different meanings. The main difference between the pictogram and the hieroglyphic is the pictogram uses an graphic symbol to represent a specific idea/place whereas hieroglyphics used graphic symbols to represent sounds. There are three different types of glyphs;
Single consonant
characters, like an
alphabet
Phonetic glyphs
Logographs
Characters
representing morphemes (the basic sounds of the language)
Ideograms that narrowed the meaning of a logographic or phonetic word
Determinatives
Greek
Greek art
Ancient Greek Art is very much a staple of considerable influence on the culture of many countries all over the world, especially in sculpture and architecture. It has been said that, in the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models stretching as far as the East where it is believed that Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, with ramifications as far as Japan. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece dominated the art of the western world.
Typeface
Textiles
During the Greek period, all material was woven by women. It was often classed as 'their job'. It was much considered a tradition and it would begin as a child when she would be given her first spindle and would end when she was buried, often with her spindle next to her. It was an expectancy for women in this ear to be able to spin and loom, from the poorest to the richest, every woman should be know how to do these two jobs.
Interior
The Greeks adapted their style from the Egyptians, but made the furniture more comfy and adequate for human use. It was typically made from wood but sometimes made from stone or metal. There was usually only 5 pieces of furniture common from house to house, stools, couches, chests, small tables and chairs. Food during this time was limited but healthy, olive oil was stored in a decorated jar and the best pots/dishes would be saved for company or a special event.
Major events
Art examples
Fashion
Clothing in ancient Greece consisted of 4 pieces of clothing; chiton, peplos, himation, and chlamys. Men and women traditionally wore two pieces of clothing draped about their body; an undergarment (chiton or peplos) and a cloak (himation or chlamys). Since the clothing was rater baggy, they would use pins or brooches to keep garments upright and in place. Both genders typically wore sandals, slippers, soft shoes or boots. At home they usually went barefoot.
The Olympic Games began over 2,700 years ago in Olympia, southwest Greece. The Games were part of a religious festival. The Greek Olympics, thought to have begun in 776 BC and inspired the modern Olympic Games which began in 1896. The Games were held in honour of Zeus, king of the gods, and were held every four years at Olympia, a valley near a city called Elis. People from all over the Greek world came to take part and spectate. Only men, boys and unmarried girls were allowed to attend the Olympic Games. Married women were not allowed into the Olympic Games and any women caught sneaking in were punished. Women were only allowed to own horses in the chariot race. As they were not allowed to attend the Olympics, unmarried women had their own festival at Olympia every four years. This was the Heraia, held in honour of Hera, wife of Zeus. Women could compete in running races, though only unmarried girls took part. Winners were awarded crowns of sacred olive branches, the same as men. As a rule Greek women did not go in for sport, unless they were Spartans.
The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied much through the ages and as a result, the history of Greece is very much diverse. Each era has its own related sphere of interest.
The Greek alphabet was an evolution of the Phoenician, and the first full alphabet which included both vowels and consonants, and was made up of 24 letters. Originally the Greeks wrote horizontally from right to left but in 500 BC they changed the direction from left to right, the same as we do today.
Chiton
The chiton is a simple tunic garment, usually a lighter linen, worn by both genders and all ages. It consisted of a wide, rectangular tube of material secured along the shoulders and upper arms by a series of fasteners. Chitons typically fell to the ankles, but shorter chitons were sometimes worn during activities by athletes, warriors and/or slaves. Sometimes excess fabric would be pulled over a girdle, or belt, fastened around the waist. To deal with the bulk sometimes a strap, or anamaschalister was worn around the neck, brought under the armpits, crossed in the back and tied in the front. A himation, or cloak, could be worn over-top of the chiton.
Peplos
The peplos is a square piece of cloth that was originally worn over the chiton. The top third of the cloth was folded over and pinned at both shoulders, leaving the cloth open down one side. Sometimes the peplos was worn alone as an alternative form of chiton. As with the chiton, sometimes a girdle or belt would be used to fasten the folds at the waist.
Himation
The himation was a basic outer garment worn over the peplos or chiton. It consisted of a heavy rectangular material, passing under the left arm and secured at the right shoulder. The cloak would be twisted around a strap that also passed under the left arm and over the right shoulder. A heavier himation was worn in cold weather. It would be pulled up over the head to cover the wearer when they were overcome by emotion or shame.
Chlamys
The chlamys is a seamless rectangle of woolen material worn by men for military or hunting purposes. It was worn as a cloak and fastened at the right shoulder with a brooch or button. This piece of clothing was the typical Greek military attire from the 5th to the 3rd century BC.
Material
Ancient Greek clothing was made with silk, linen and most often, wool. The production of fabric was a long and tedious process, making ready-made clothing expensive to buy. It was socially accepted that textile making was a women's responsibility, and the production of high quality textiles was regarded as an accomplishment for women of high status. Once made, the cloth was rarely cut. The seamless rectangles of fabric were draped on the body in various ways with little sewing involved.
Roman
Roman art
Roman art often refers to that of architecture, painting, sculptures and mosaics. Art during this time period is from a very broad spectrum as the Romans roamed for almost 1,000 years amongst three continents meaning any two pieces of art could be very diverse. However, it is recognised that sculpture was perhaps considered the highest form of art by any Roman. But this was rather pricey compared to pottery, which wasn't considered a luxury product at the time. But, a seemingly vast production of "fine wares" in Terra Sigillata were decorated with accessories that reflected the latest trends and provided a lot of people with 'stylish' objects at what was evidently an affordable price.
Typeface
Textiles
Clothing and other textiles are of great significance to the survival of human beings. Even in the height of the Roman period textiles enjoyed a key role in society. Everybody, from emperors to slaves wore some form of clothing and used household fabrics for every day purposes. A large variety of textiles and clothes have remained intact due to the four fabrics mostly used; wool, linen, silk, and cotton.
Interior
The Greeks adapted their style from the Egyptians, but made the furniture more comfy and adequate for human use. It was typically made from wood but sometimes made from stone or metal. There was usually only 5 pieces of furniture common from house to house, stools, couches, chests, small tables and chairs. Food during this time was limited but healthy, olive oil was stored in a decorated jar and the best pots/dishes would be saved for company or a special event.
Major events
Art examples
Fashion
Like many of the previous time periods I have exampled, Roman fashion differed from class to class, gender to gender and age to age. For example; the tunic, made from dark, course material was worn by slaves, Plebians (common folk) and herdsmen. Whereas a tunic made from white linen or wool were worn by Patricians (members of the Roman aristocracy.
The Olympic Games began over 2,700 years ago in Olympia, southwest Greece. The Games were part of a religious festival. The Greek Olympics, thought to have begun in 776 BC and inspired the modern Olympic Games which began in 1896. The Games were held in honour of Zeus, king of the gods, and were held every four years at Olympia, a valley near a city called Elis. People from all over the Greek world came to take part and spectate. Only men, boys and unmarried girls were allowed to attend the Olympic Games. Married women were not allowed into the Olympic Games and any women caught sneaking in were punished. Women were only allowed to own horses in the chariot race. As they were not allowed to attend the Olympics, unmarried women had their own festival at Olympia every four years. This was the Heraia, held in honour of Hera, wife of Zeus. Women could compete in running races, though only unmarried girls took part. Winners were awarded crowns of sacred olive branches, the same as men. As a rule Greek women did not go in for sport, unless they were Spartans.
Ancient Rome was an Italian civilisation that began in Italy during the 8th century BC. This was to expand and become one of the largest empires recognised in the ancient world. With an estimated 50 to 90 million people, roughly 20% of the world's population at the time, and covering 2.5 million square miles during its height between the first and second centuries AD.
The Greek alphabet was an evolution of the Phoenician, and the first full alphabet which included both vowels and consonants, and was made up of 24 letters. Originally the Greeks wrote horizontally from right to left but in 500 BC they changed the direction from left to right, the same as we do today.
Pop Art
Pop art is a comic-esque type of art. It uses bold colours with harsh black outlines focusing on a fun, childlike designs. Pop art increased in popularity in the 1950's and was popular until the beginning of the 70's when postmodernism was introduced.
Artists
Fashion textiles
Fashion within the 60's and 70's was colourful, to say the least. Tie dye patterns and loose clothing was the current trend, however, the trendsetter has never been named. It has been said that the fashion movement at the time very much mirrored the art scene, using bright, bold colours and wacky patterns. It is also known that the bikini became popular during 1963 after being featured in Beach party, the musical.
Major event
Staple of the art movement
Artist: Roy Lichtenstein
Artwork: Whaam!
Year: 1963
Considered to be the staple of pop art, Litchenstein was known for his comic like art pieces and his bold outlines.
Designer
Marilyn Diptych - Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol from Pittsburgh, USA:
August 6, 1928 - February 22, 1987
Most famous for his use of celebrities within his
art pieces and his dynamic colour range
Eduardo Paolozzi from Edinburgh, Scotland:
7 March, 1924 - 22 April, 2005
Most famous for his distinct style of art, the
bright colour range and his painting dynamic
Roy Lichtenstein from New York, USA:
October 27, 1923 - September 29, 1997
Most famous for his comic strip pieces.
Typeface
Very much like Surrealism, pop art had it's own influence on typography. The style differed from artist to artist but each were individual and very well presented. I prefer the block fonts compared to the serif ones, but that is just my artistsic preference.
Mary Quant, a Welsh born fashion designer and British style icon. She was influential during the mod-rock fashion statement and encouraged youngsters to 'dress for themselves'. She brands herself the creator of hot pants and mini skirts. Many people have great things to say about Dame Mary Quant, including Ernestine Carter, an influential fashion journalist during the 1950s and 60s once said "It is given to a fortunate few to be born at the right time, in the right place, with the right talents. In recent fashion there are three: Chanel, Dior, and Mary Quant.".
During 1961 John F. Kennedy became the 35th President of the United States and was also the youngest man ever elected into office. He was tragically assassinated two years later in Dallas, Texas becoming the youngest president to die. He served in office from 1961 - 1963.
Surrealism
Surrealism, an art movement created to push the boundaries and make you think beyond. It began as a cultural movement, in the early 1920s and is recognised for its visual artworks. The aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality". Artists painted unimaginable and illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange scenes with everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself.
Artists
Fashion textiles
Fashion within the 1920's varied. Most ladies garments were with light, airy material such as silk whereas mens were made of a stiffer fabric. During this time period clothes were hardly ever washed, only spot dabbed to preserve the colour as the dye washed out considerably easy. During the early 20's dark solid colour was preferred on clothing but coming to the end of the decade, patterns became seemingly more popular. All men owned at least one pinstripe suit!
Major event
Staple of the art movement
Artist: Salvador Dali
Artwork: The Persistence of Memory
Year: 1931
Considered to be the staple of Surrealism, Dali painted one of the most recognised piece of surrealist art to date.
Designer
Swans Reflecting Elephants - Salvador Dali
Salvador Dali from Figueres, Spain:
11th May 1904 - 23rd January 1989
Most famous for his bizarre pieces of art,
for example; The Persistence of Memory.

Yves Tanguy from Paris, France:
January 5th 1900 - January 15th 1955
Most famous for his distinct style of
painting, using hardly any contrasting
colours and a limited palette.
René Magritte from Lessines, Belgium:
21 November 1898 - 15 August 1967
Most famous for his number of witty and thought-provoking images, challenging individuals usual thought process.
Typeface
The surrealism movement was very much one where somebody would express their individuality. This would mean limiting the era to one specific font would be difficult, however, the creative style font was seemingly popular around this movement. It gave artists that extra outlet of freedom within their work, much like graffiti artists.
Flappers were described as 'fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behaviour.' In the 1920's patriarchy was very much a social norm. The idealistic family was a nuclear family, or 'cereal box' family, consisting of a mother, father, son and daughter. Women were really just considered a statement piece for men, somebody to cook, clean and keep their bed warm. They shouldn't wear anything too revealing as it was deemed unnecessary, only her husband should know what she looks like under her dress. Flappers pushed against this social norm by drinking, smoking, wearing excessive make up and tight clothing. Coco Chanel made her name during this time period as she designed clothes for women to make women feel good in themselves, not for men.
1 September 1939 is the second the most significant date in British history, after 2 September 1945. These two dates signify the beginning and end of World War II. It lasted 6 years and 1 day, killing an estimated combined total of 73,000,000 people. The end of the war resulted in the creation of the United Nations; a intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
Postmodernism and Deconstructivism
Postmodernism and deconstructivism is based around the idea of recycling old themes and recreating them to a modern day context or the idea of distortion and fragmentation.
Artists
Fashion textiles
Fashion during the 70's was a mixture of bright colours, patterns and loose clothing. Much like the 60's there was a lot of patterns but the trend started to shift to disco-chic. This meant metallic clothing, big hair and platform shoes. Short skirts were extremely on trend during this time as well as glam-rock outfits.
Major event
Example of the art movement
Artist: Frank Gehry
Artwork: Guggenheim Bilbao
Established: October 18, 1997
One of Gehry's most famous pieces, this is an art museum for modern and contemporary art located in Bilbao, Spain.
Designer
Dancing House or Fred and Ginger - Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry
Frank Gehry from Ontario, Canada:
February 28, 1929
He's a world renown architect and this work has been described as the most influential in contemporary architecture.
Cindy Sherman from New Jersey, USA:
January 19, 1954
She is a photographer, best known for her conceptual portraits.
Gerhard Richter from Dresden, Weimar Republic:
9 February 1932
Well known for his fluctuating style. He's created abstract, photo realistic paintings, photographs and glass pieces.
Typeface
This font is a good representation of postmdern or deconstructive typography. It's a stylish font as you can tell by the angle, this very much reflects on the style of architecture within this art movement.
Zaha Hadid, considered 'queen of the curve' and the first woman and muslim to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize. Zaha liberated architectural geometry with the creation of expressive, sweeping fluid forms of multiple perspective points and fragmented geometry that reflect the chaos of modern life. Her most famous works include the aquatic center built for the London 2012 Olympics, the Guangzhou (China opera house) and the Broad Art Museum, USA. She sadly passed away March 31st 2016 from a heart attack in Miami.
Gay rights gained popularity. Gay rights activists Foster Gunnison and Craig Rodwell led a march in New York on June 28th 1970 (then known as Gay Liberation day). This resulted in more demonstrations and protests by the gay community and by 1971 gay groups had formed in almost ever major US city.
Cubism
Cubism was one of the most influential visual art styles of the early twentieth century. It's dynamic shapes and colours was something not seen before but led the way for different art style approaches. It is said to have been created by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in Paris during the early 20th century.
Artists
Fashion textiles
Fashion during the early 20th century continued the long elegant lines of the 1890s. Tall, stiff collars are the defining style of this period as well as women's broad hats and Gibson Girl hairstyles. However, during this decade designers introduced a new silhouette which deterred away from the corset meaning women would be able to have clothes that fit their body instead of having a body to fit their clothes.
Major event
Staple of the art movement
Artist: Pablo Picasso
Artwork: The Weeping Woman
Year: 1937
Picasso is considered one of the two founders of the Cubism movement. This is regarded as one of his most famous pieces due to the shapes, colours and dynamic stance.
Designer
Violin and Candlestick - Georges Braque
Georges Braque from Argenteuil, Val-d'Oise:
13th May 1882 - 31st August 1963
Jack-of-all-trades; he was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman,
printmaker and sculptor

Fernand Léger from Argentan, France:
4th February 1881 - 17th August 1955
Had a very distinct art style. His simplified
treatment of modern subject matter led him
to be regarded as a forerunner of pop art.
Pablo Picasso from Málaga, Spain:
25th October 1881 - 8th April 1973
Picasso is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century. He had extraordinary talent.
Typeface
This font is a prime example of cubism worked into a typeface. The dynamic structure achieved by the dual-tone colour really gives the font depth and a true cubist feel. You can clearly see the use of shape and how the created incorporated this into the letters, merging them into one. I think this is a stylish font which I would use in a piece of work.

The 1910's was the beginning of significant typeface developments. Fredrick W Goudy was one of Americas greatest type designer whom became regonised for his work around this time. He designed CopperPlate in 1905.
During World War I, a mechanic in a plant who lived in Stillwater, Minnesota decided to solve the burnt toast problem served in the company cafeteria. To withold the need for continual use, Charles Strite incorporated springs and a variable timer, and filed the patent application for his pop-up toaster on May 29, 1919. He intended the device would be sold to the restaurant trade. Little did he know that he would be the patriot of golden toast forevermore.
On the 10th April 1912 RMS Titanic set sail on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. The ship was a British passenger liner with more than 2000 passengers. The Titanic was considered 'the ship that couldn't sink' however, this was soon to be proven otherwise. In the early morning of the 15th April 1912, RMS Titanic collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic Ocean and resulted in the ship sinking, killing more than 1500 passengers including the ship architect and crew, making it one of the deadliest commercial peacetime maritime disasters in modern history.
Art Nouveau
Art nouveau is a very stylish art movement that was very popular from the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century. It's a rich movement that uses primarily wealthy colours such as silver and gold. It is influenced by natural shapes and structures, for example flowers and plants, but isn't restricted by this. All forms of art nouveau feature curved lines and natural swirls, the movement is renown for this type of style. It is widely considered as an important transition between the eclectic historic revival styles of the 19th century and Modernism.
Artists
Fashion textiles
As the Victorian era drew to its close, skirts for both day and evening were elongated at the back to form a train. The skirt’s silhouette was slim at the hip, achieved with pleating and smocking. Any fullness in the skirt was confined to below the knee. The fashionable silhouette at the time was one of a confident woman with full low chest and curvy hips. The "health corset" of this period removed pressure from the abdomen which was very common at the time and created an S-curve silhouette.
Major event
Staple of the art movement
Artist: Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Artwork: 'Design for a poster for a magazine of Art, Literature and Science'
Year: unknown
Mackintosh is one of, if not the, most well known artist related to the art nouveau movement. He had a highly individualistic style which was appreciated more in continental Europe than the UK.
Engineer
The Peacock Skirt - Aubrey Beardsley
Aubrey Beardsley from Brighton, England:
21st August 1872 - 16th March 1898
He worked as an illustrator and author. His drawings in black ink are regarded as his staple and he was considered a leading figure in the Aesthetic movement.

Alphonse Mucha from Ivančice, Austrian Empire:
24th July 1860 – 14th July 1939
Best known for his posters focusing on woman
and the use of curved lines, illustrated by a long
lust of hair.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh from Glasgow, Scotland:
7th June 1868 – 10th December 1928
One of the most famous artists from this art movement and a considerable influence on European design. An architect, designer, water colourist and artist whom was known for his stained glass flowers.
Typeface
Typography during this movement was heavily reflective of the art style; curved lines. The typography was so heavily ornate that it was not desirable for text faces but great for display work. Typography itself was used as art pieces, it was extremely decorative. An example of type used at this time is Arnold Böcklin, designed in 1904 by Schriftgiesserei Otto Weisert foundry. The font itself was very popular due to its ornate style and curved posture, it was featured in works by Roger Dean and Paul Harvey.
James Henry Northrop, born in Keighley, West Yorkshire worked within the textile industry before emigrating to Boston, Massachusetts to work as a mechanic and foreman for George Draper and Sons. Whilst working in Boston, Northrop designed the The Northrop Loom, a fully automatic power loom which was given a mill trail which proved successful so the Northrop Loom was marketed by George Draper and Sons.
On the January 22, 1901 the longest reigning British monarch Queen Victoria died at age 81. She reigned from 1837 to 1901, she was mourned around the world and signaled an end to the Victorian Era.
statue of the emperor Augustus Caesar
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