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Chemical Engineering

English Class- Period 4

Mark McMillan

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineering has been practiced, in simple terms, since at least the great Roman road-building projects that began in about 300 B.C.
Chemical Engineering as we know it today is little over one hundred years old, evolving from mechanical engineering at the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the later part of the 19th century.
It was first taught, as its own course, in 1887 at the Manchester Technical School; reaching the United States, through M.I.T, during the first years of the 20th century.
The chemical engineering organization "AIChE" (American Institute of Chemical Engineers) was established in 1908 with the purpose of establishing chemical engineers as a profession independent from chemists and mechanical engineers. What do they do? Why did I choose this career? Chemical Engineering What is Chemical Engineering? Chemical engineering is the study and practice of transforming substances, in large scales, for the tangible improvement of the human condition.
Chemical engineering also encompasses the development of new materials and related techniques.
Chemical engineering is, in simple terms, applied chemistry paired with the mathematical and rational functions of engineering. Chemical engineers typically do the following:

Conduct research to develop new materials and improved manufacturing processes
Troubleshoot problems with manufacturing processes
Evaluate equipment and processes to ensure compliance with safety and environmental regulations
Run tests and monitor performance of processes throughout production
Develop processes to separate components of liquids or gases or to generate electrical currents using controlled chemical processes Some History on the Career Different Branches of Chemcal Engineering There are two main branches within chemical engineering:

Chemical process engineers: Those that design, manufacture, and operate plants and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes.
Chemical product engineers: Those that develop new, or adapt existing, substances for a variety of different uses. Specialties Mark McMillan
Period 4
Ms. Miranda There are also two main types of specialties within chemical engineering:

Specialized prosecesses: Concentrate on processes within chemistry (e.g. combustion reactions, polymerization, organic compounds etc.)
Specialized fields: Incorporate knowledge from other the other technical sciences and give them applications within chemical engineering (e.g. nanomaterials) How do you become one? Entry-level chemical engineering jobs require a bachelor's degree. Programs usually take 4 years to complete and include classroom, laboratory, and field studies.
Although not technically necessary, gaining an engineering liscence is certainly encouraged and is often sought after by employers .
Becoming a liscenced chemical engineer has its own requirements:
A degree from an engineering program accredited by ABET
A passing score on the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam
Relevant work experience
A passing score on the Professional Engineering (PE) exam

Once liscenced, you are an official Professional Engineer (PE). I am fascinated by science, particularly chemistry.
I enjoy solving mathematical problems.
Demand for Chemical Engineers is growing and forecasted to grow even more in the near future as current engineers retire.

Chemical Engineering is amongst the highest paying degrees for first time jobs.
Chemical Engineers are flexible in terms of career choices. See electrons for famous discoveries made by chemical engineers Lithium-ion Battery Developed by:
Yoshio Nishi Gore-Tex Polymer Developed by:
Wilbert and Robert Gore Common Plastic
(Polyethylene) Discovered by:
Reginald Gibson, Eric Fawcett, Michael Perrin and Dermot Manning The Haber-Bosch Process (Used to get ammonia for making fetilizers) Developed by:
Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch PVC Discovered By:
Waldo Semon 'Cracking' process for hydrocarbons Discovered by:
Donald Campbell, Homer Martin, Eger Murphree and Charles Tyson Non- Newtonian Fluids Experiment The task of many chemical engineers is to find new chemical compounds or mixtures to help solve problems posed by the limitations of current chemicals used for certain tasks. Non-Newtonian fluids, like the one I have created, are an example of one of these mixtures.

Non-Newtonian fluids, or dilatants, have been used to solve many problems: from helping to stop bullets to acting as a simple thickening agent in cooking. This is all thanks to their unusual response to changes in applied stress, discovered by chemists. How does this pertain to Chemical Engineering? A Non-Newtonian fluid is a material which changes viscosity depending on the stress or force applied to it.
In other words, it is a substance that acts like a fluid when no forces are being exerted on it, but changes to resemble the physical characteristics of a solid when a force is indeed applied.
Non-Newtonian fluids' reactions are based on the rate of the force applied, forces applied at a fast rate having a greater effect than those applied at a slow rate.

Examples of common Non-Newtonian fluids include: What is a Non-Newtonian Fluid? Ketchup Peanut Butter Silly Putty Honey Maple Syrup Aim of the Experiment To create and test the reactions of a Non-Newtonian fluid as variable stress is applied to it. In doing so I will get a small glimpse of how it is like being a chemical product engineer. Hypothesis I believe that as the rate at which the force applied to the fluid increases, so will its viscosity and resistance to further pushing Materials The Non-Newtonian fluid I will be making is a simple combination of corn starch and water. Method The method for making it is also quite simple:
Add the two ingredients into a bowl, in a two to one ratio (Cornstarch 2:1 Water), and stir it around until a viscous consistency is attained.
Then test passing objects , or your hand, through it at different speeds.
Attempt to impale the mixture at different speeds.
Compare results for the different stress tests Results My results match the prediction I had made in my hypothesis:
At a slow rate, the mixture was easy to move my hand in however, as I tried to move my hand faster through the mixture it gave me increasing resistance and felt more and more like a solid.
The same logic applied when impaling the mixture: the faster the object was moving when impaling the fluid, the more resistance was met when trying to touch the bottom of the container. This trend observed in the results is seen clearly in the graph with the "Dilitant Fluid" curve; in which viscosity increases unevenly, as opposed to a Newtonian fluid, when exposed to sheer forces. The actual cause of this sheer thickening phenomenon is
still not completely understood, but there are two main
hypothesis that try to explain it: Order to Disorder Transition When shearing a concentrated, stabilized solution at a relatively low shear rate, the repulsive particle-particle interactions keep the particles in an ordered, layered, equilibrium structure. However, at elevated shear rates, the shear forces pushing the particles together overcome the repulsive particle-particle interactions, forcing the particles out of their equilibrium positions. This leads to a disordered structure, causing an increase in viscosity. Order -> Disorder A simple analogy for this phenomenon is a person trying to get through an oncoming group of people. If the person moves slowly through the group, the structure of the group is mantained quite well and allows for easy traverse. However if the person tries to run through the group, the structure of the group would break as people are pushed aside and the runner would have a harder time geting through. Hydroclustering When the particles of a stabilized suspension transition from an immobile state to mobile state, small groupings of particles form hydroclusters, increasing the viscosity. These hydroclusters are composed of particles momentarily compressed together, forming an irregular, rod-like chain of particles akin to a logjam or traffic jam. In theory the particles have extremely small interparticle gaps, rendering this momentary, transient hydrocluster as incompressible. Conclusion Through experimenting with this Non-Newtonian fluid, I have discovered, first hand, that my hypothesis was correct.
The process of writing the experiment up has also given me a modest sight into what chemical engineers are expected to do.
I have also discovered that even the simplest of experiments can still mystify scientists in their ways of functioning.
This in turn has enlightened me as to how much knowledge is still out there, waiting to be discrovered.
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