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CONSTRUCTIVISM in Piaget and Vygotsky

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Dr. Hanaa Wahba

on 16 May 2014

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Transcript of CONSTRUCTIVISM in Piaget and Vygotsky

Developmental Theory of Learning and Constructivism

Hanaa Wahba
Adjunct Professor, Queens College
Department of Secondary Education and Youth Services

Piaget Vs. Vygotsky
through interaction
Piaget explains the learning process by
(the organization of information on how things work),
(the placing of new information into schemes), and
(transforming existing schemes or creating new ones).
construct knowledge through their actions with the world
Jean Piaget
Background Information

He was a Swiss psychologist who became interested in cognitive development in infants and children.
He was famous for his four stages of cognitive development of children.
2-7 years
Evolution of intelligence
Language develops tremendously
Symbolic Function or the appearance of new significant
Ex: Appearance of symbols in children's games
No knowledge of conservation
11,12 years and beyond
Abstract reasoning
Logical thoughts
Generating hypothesis
beliefs and values
Sensorimotor stage
Birth-2 years
Rests on action, on movements and perceptions without language
Understanding the object by assimilating it to schemata
creating an entirely new schemata. (Accommodation)
Exploring the object
Develop Awareness of object permanence (is a child's ability to understand that objects still exist even if they are no longer visible.)
7-11 years

Solving problems of inclusion
-the ability to organize objects according to size and weight
Social Constructivism
Continuous interactions among existing schemes, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium create new learning.
Four stages of the psychological development of the young learner
Piaget’s developmental theory of learning and constructivism are based on discovery.
Piaget believes that a constructivist classroom must provide a variety of activities to challenge students to accept individual differences, increase their readiness to learn, discover new ideas, and construct their own knowledge.

Vygotsky’s constructivism is known as social constructivism because of the significance of culture and social context.
With the help of
social interaction
, such as assistance from a mentor, students can comprehend concepts and schemes that they cannot know on their own.
Information based on interaction
& collaboration
Analyze and Reflect on the Information
Social interaction plays a fundamental role
in the process of cognitive development.
For Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development “. . . the distance between the actual development of a child as determined by the independent problem solving, and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more peers (Vygotsky: 1978)” suggests that cognitive development is limited to a certain range at a particular age.
How can you effectively use Piaget's constructivist theory in your classroom?
provide a variety of activities to challenge students to accept individual differences, increase their readiness to learn, discover new ideas, and construct their own knowledge
provide contexts for dialogue and interaction within the classroom
hands-on activities
collaborative work
He believed that learning and development are a collaborative activity.
For learning to occur, the child first makes contact with the social environment on an interpersonal level and then internalizes this experience.

How can you effectively use Vygotsky's social constructivism in your classroom?
social interaction, cooperative learning, collaboration
Active participation
challenging tasks: assisted by teachers or knowledgeable student
teacher-student and student-student interaction.
questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
dynamic support and considerate guidance
Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources
problem solving activities-pairs or small groups
cognitive modeling (thinking out loud)
Both Piaget and Vygotsky appreciated the essence of building constructs and internalizing the knowledge given, rather than accepting the information as presented through rote-memory.
Ozer, O. (2004). Constructivism in Piaget and Vygotsky.
The Fortaine Magazine. Retrieved from, h
Piaget J. (1962). The stages of intellectual development of the child. 121–124

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