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The French Revolution

By: Jessica Avila and Nishtha Asija
by

Jessica Avila

on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of The French Revolution

The French Revolution
By: Jessica Avila and Nishtha Asija
The Slogan
Robespierre's Beliefs
Our Opinion
The slogan of the French Revolution was "
liberte,
egalite, fraternite
." The French chose this slogan
based on ideas of the Enlightenment and were
greatly
influenced by it.
Robespierre was the
leader of the Revolution
. He was a radical and a democrat,
defending the principle
that
the "rights of man" should
extend to all men. Being a
shrewd
lawyer and politician, he
was able to
rise
to leadership
quickly.

He was given the
nickname "
the incorruptible
."
At the
beginning of the Revolution
,
Robespierre strongly believed that France's government needed to change. He was
against monarchy
and believed in
a government
ruled by the people.
According to historians, the French Revolution is considered one of the
most important
events in modern western societies. This is mainly because it made an impact
around the world
, affecting the lives of the French people as well as those from
other
countries. It influenced many governments to
change from an absolute monarchy to a
republic
or democracy.
Another influence was the American Revolution. France saw how the Americans won their independence and wanted to do the same.
Causes . . .
The Three Estates
1. Clergy
2. Nobles
3. Peasants
Excesses
of
the
King
While the
people of
France were
suffering
, their
unfit King, Louis XVI, had
a
life of luxury
. He didn't
know or care about
their
problems
.
The majority of the population
was peasants (97%).
The Weather
1) Heavy rains led to
bad harvests
.
2) The mini ice-age created a severe
shortage
of food.
The Debt
The third estate is burdened with taxes and have no privileges.
France was deeply indebted, so deeply as to be effectively
bankrupt
.
The Outside
Queen

Louis' wife and queen of France, Marie Antoinette, was seen as an
outsider
. She was born in Austria to a royal family and their marriage was meant to bring peace. The people of France
did not care for her; however,
because her fondness for clothing and jewelries gave her the
reputation
of being an insensitive queen. Thus she earned the nickname
"
Madame Deficit
."
Extreme Taxation
of The Third Estate
The third estate was
extremely
unhappy
about their high taxes. The price of
bread, their main food supply,
soared
and
they became
very angry
. The price of
bread cost a month's earning.
Maximilien Robespierre
Education
Robespierre studied law at
the University of Paris. He
was so
noteworthy
that
he was chosen to
present
a speech to King Louis
XVI
on his coronation.
Meeting the King
This was how Robespierre
first met
King Louis. It was not a memorable experience though, for the King
snubbed
Robespierre and was
not interested in him or his speech
at all. Little did he know that Robespierre would be the one to
start the Revolution
years later.
He was against....
- Death Penalty
- Torture
- Slavery
- Power of the Catholic Church
- Social Class Divisions
The Guillotine
The guillotine was invented by Dr. Guillotin. This
new type of
punishment
is supposed to be the
great equalizer. Another name of this punishment
is
The National Razor
. In the beginning of the French Revolution, Robespierre
was against
the guillotine.
How did Robespierre's beliefs change?
After the
abdication
of the King, Robespierre changed his mind toward the death penalty. He believed the death penalty was a
good way to punish
those who were against the revolution. He also believed
terror was necessary
to achieve the goals of the revolution.
"
The king must die so that the country can live
."
"
To punish the oppressors of humanity is clemency; to forgive them is cruelty
."
Robespierre's famous quotes
The reign of terror is the
second phase
of the French Revolution. It began in 1793.
Process of De-Christianization
- Street names were changed.
- There was a new calendar in which there were 3
weeks of 10 days, without Sundays.
- The first year in the calendar was the year of the revolution.
- Non-religious holidays were created.
- Jean-Paul Marat became the new saint.
- Christian Saints' statutes were destroyed.
- Thousands of priests were killed.
The Reign Of Terror
The End of The Revolution
The French Revolution ended with Maximilien Robespierre's death and military hero
Napoleon Bonaparte
crowning himself Emperor of France. The country had been in
complete chaos
for 5 years,
without
any form of government.
Napoleon crowned himself emperor instead of the Pope. He wanted this to be symbolic of owing the throne to no one but himself.
During this phase, Robespierre became a
radical revolutionary
who killed everyone who did not follow his rules. In this time period, the radicals
suspended
the newly written constitution.
Inspired Revolutions
The French Revolution inspired many countries to
start their own
revolutions. Grievances had been piling up for years, and this was just the inspiration
needed
. Middle class liberals wanted
more political power
, workers wanted
relief
from harsh work due to the Industrial Revolution, and nationalists wanted to
throw off
all foreign rule.
These countries included:
Austria, Italy, Germany,
Haiti, and other countries from Central America, including Mexico.
Robespierre became a tyrant because he wanted to have
personal power
and
glory.
He basically wanted everything to go his way. The main reason behind his terror was to establish a "
republic of virtue
" which he defines as a prompt, severe and inflexible justice. He wanted to embrace the idea of general will as the source of all
legitimate
law. He disagreed with everyone who had a different opinion. Robespierre
ceased to be a leader
and instead became a tyrant.
The Great Terror
The Great Terror was the
third

phase
of the French Revolution. It began in 1794.
During this phase, Robespierre
abolished
the constitution that
he
had written.

This phase ends with the
death of Robespierre
, the "incorruptible". He was executed by the guillotine.

Consequences of the
French Revolution
#1) For the first time in history, government was
set up by the people.
#2) Monarchy was demolished in France.
#3) Power of the Catholic Church was dramatically
reduced.
#4) Revolutions around the world were set up.
Changing Lives
-New governments
-New economies
-Putting the Church under control
-No more social classes
-Religious toleration
New Ideas
The French Revolution made people
reconsider
being ruled by an absolute
monarchy. They wanted
change
. If it
weren't for the Revolution, many countries
would
still be ruled by absolute monarchies

today. Since the French Revolution questioned
the authority of monarchs, nations would
change
their point of view. This brought the
idea of
new political forces
, such as
democracy. People across the world
would
improve
their opinion on
government thanks to the
French Revolution.
The French Revolution
changed
the lives of many people.
Not only
those who lived in France or fought in the Revolution, though. New ideas and changes were being made
all around the world
including:
Jean-Paul Marat
Jean-Paul Marat was the
creator
of a
new newspaper
, called "L'ami du peuple (The friend of people)." He was one of the
most extreme
voices of the French Revolution. His newspaper carried his message
throughout France
.
This newspaper will play an
important role
in the
violent
outcome of the French Revolution. It will
influence
people's actions.
Jean-Paul Marat was accusing many citizens of treason in his newspaper. His writings
enraged many people
including a woman called Charlotte Corday. Later, Charlotte
assassinated
Marat at his house. Her goal was to
stop
the aimless death of accused citizens. However
the reaction was not
what she expected. People became
furious
that she had killed
an influential writer. Marat then
became a
legend
.
Full transcript