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Social media impact on self-esteem
Transcript of Social media impact on self-esteem
People who spend a lot of time on social networks, tend to have lower self-esteem. Social media networks often determines how people perceive themselves, mostly leading to a decrease in self-esteem. According to the social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954), individuals have a tendency to compare themselves to others to learn where they stand.
This is serious and relevant problem for our century. There are a lot of researches focusing on negative impacts of social media, with particular reference to Facebook.
Social media impact on self-esteem
Social comparison theory
According to the (Heatherton, Wyland & Lopez, 2003), self-esteem is the evaluative emotional component of the broader self-concept and serves various social and existential functions (e.g., acceptance in groups, meaning in life ;) Self-esteem is known to be under the influence of multiple factors, for instance self-assessed emotions concerning being proud or happy vis-à-vis feeling humiliated or ashamed of a behavior (Faraon & Kaipainen, 2014). A growing body of research shows that self-esteem has been particularly prone to decrease after engaging in behavior (e.g., social comparison) that could result in being socially rejected or disliked by others ( Denti et al 2012 ). According to the theory, self-esteem is closely linked to social relationships and perceived social value, i.e.to which degree a person value his or her relationship with others and how this affects daily life. If a person is considered to have relational value, then they are more likely to have higher self-esteem (Leary & Baumeister, 2000).
Based on the literature review and previous studies, I would like to focus on correlation between using Facebook and self-esteem, to determine whether active social media users have impact on self-esteem.
H1.Facebook intensity and self-esteem are related
"There are a number of studies indicating detrimental effects of (negative) social comparisons on SNS on different aspects of well-being. Becoming involved in negative social comparisons on SNS has been demonstrated to result in decreased self-esteem (Vogel et al, 2014), lower levels of self-perceived social competence and physical attractiveness (de Vries & Kühne, 2015).
According to the previous studies and findings I can anticipate that people who use Facebook more is more tend to compare themselves to others and subsequently have lower self-esteem.
H2: The higher Facebook intensity causes lower self-esteem.
Social media is the phenomenon of 21st century, the prominent way of communication. Initially social media was invented for innocuous mission to connect people all over the world, however over time it started to cause enormous effect on everything, especially on people’s attitude. This addiction impacts the brain much like drug and alcohol addictions (Ophir, Nass, Wagner, 2009). Social media addiction changes perception of life, especially for younger generation, who cannot live without them. It became a kind of “vanity fair”, where people are showing off their best qualities and don’t have any shortcomings.
Social media is the new way of interaction. SNSs allow users to construct electronic profiles for themselves, provide details about their lives and experiences, post pictures, maintain relationships, plan social events, meet new people, make observations of others’ lives, fulfill belongingness needs, and express their beliefs, preferences, and emotions (boyd & Ellison, 2007; Ivcevic & Ambady,2012; Nadkarni & Hofmann, 2012; Tosun,2012). According to the latest statistics, social networking is one of the most popular internet activities in North America. As of April 2015, almost three-quarters of internet users in the United States accessed market leader Facebook. Therefore, Facebook has been chosen as an example of the most popular social networks for further research. Facebook provides individuals with easy access to view personal information about their friends, coworkers, and even complete strangers (Muise, Christofides, & Desmarais, 2009). The amount of time spent on Facebook varies and ranging from 10-30 minutes per day to 90 minutes and 60-120 minutes per day (Faraon, & Kaipainen, 2014). People use SNSs (either consciously or unconsciously (Haferkamp & Kramer, 2011) as a basis for social comparative functions, such as self-evaluation (Festinger, 1954) or self-enhancement (Gruder, 1971; Wills, 1981).
The theory of social comparison was initially proposed by social psychologist Leon Festinger, in 1954. According to this theory, in the absence of objective standards to assess their personality traits and qualities of people looking for other people to evaluate themselves by comparing them. People often engage in social comparisons as they evaluate their own opinions, situations, and abilities against others (Festinger, 1954; Suls & Mullen, 1982). The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self. Thus, whether it is about our appearance, our abilities, and opinions on anyone or anything, even the feelings that we feel - in all these cases we are guided, according to Festinger, on appearance, abilities, opinions and feelings of other people. The theory of social comparison by L. Festinger was clarified by Joan Wood which identified three main motives for which people use social comparison: 1. the need for self-assessment; 2. the desire for self-improvement; 3. the need to improve self-esteem. (Wood, 1989).
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The University of Salford in the UK did a study about social media’s effects on self-esteem and anxiety. 50% of their 298 participants said that their “use of social networks like Facebook and Twitter makes their lives worse” (Social Media Fuels Low Self-Esteem, Anxiety [STUDY] n.d.). One more study assessed participants’ frequency of Facebook use and subjective well-being over time and found that Facebook use predicted a decline in subjective well-being (Kross et al., 2013). The study by Smith et al., (2013) revealed that maladaptive Facebook use was related to increases in body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms in participants. High-frequency Facebook use is associated with increased depression and decreased well-being (Feinstein et al., 2013; Kalpidou, Costin, & Morris, 2011).
In order to define correlation between self-esteem and Facebook and its impact, the online survey was designed. For making survey I used Survey Monkey platform, which provides free, customizable surveys. The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts, in total 18 questions.
The first section was devoted to measure different levels of Facebook usage. For this purpose I used Facebook Intensity Scale (Ellison, Steinfield & Lampe, 2007).It consists of 8 questions.
Response categories range from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree.
The second part is Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale to measure self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965). A 10-item scale that measures global self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self.
All items are answered using a 4-point Likert scale format ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a widely used self-report instrument for evaluating individual self-esteem, was investigated using item response theory.
To measure the internal consistency of Facebook intensity and self-esteem the Cronbach’s Alpha tests was conducted.
The alpha coefficient for the Facebook intensity consisting of items is .863, suggesting that the items have relatively high internal consistency.
Self-esteem have also been proven to have acceptable level of consistency. Self-esteem consisted of 10 items (α = 0.778)
To measure correlation between two variables Facebook intensity and self-esteem, the Pearson Correlation table was used.
According to the test, two variables are not related. The correlation coefficient between Intensity and Self-esteem variables is .076, indicating no correlation at all.
Two more variables were added: “Approximately how many TOTAL Facebook friends do you have?”(number of friends) And “In the past week, on average, approximately how much time PER DAY have you spent actively using Facebook?”(time)
According to the results, all data correlated negatively except correlation between number of friends and time. The correlation coefficient between these two variables is .601, which is positive. Thus, the more Facebook friends people have, more time they spend on Facebook per day.
As this study is a pretest, this finding should be recalled in the full-scale research
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The online survey was disseminated through social networks such as Facebook and What Sapp by links. The number of respondents: 47, mostly students form USA, Kazakhstan and France.