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Nelson Mandela & The Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa

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Pierina Anton

on 28 May 2014

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Transcript of Nelson Mandela & The Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa

(of South Africa)
1948-1985
"It is an ideal for which I hope to live for and to see realized. But my lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die."
The Anti-Apartheid Movement
The Apartheid Timeline
1913: Land Act passed

1944: Mandela joins African National Congress

1948: Apartheid policies are adopted under the Afrikaner National Party, making racial segregation legal

Population Registration Act of 1950: Required all South Africans to be racially classified into 1 of 3 categories
Bantu Authorities Act of 1951: 10 Bantu homelands (Bantustans) created for blacks

1951: Mandela elected President of ANCYL

1952: Defiance Campaign begins, Mandela sentenced to 9 months imprisonment

1953: Public Safety Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act

1956: Mandela is arrested and put on trial for Treason
The opponents to the Anti-Apartheid movement were generally white politicians who wanted total power. These white men believed in white domination due to the colonization of South Africa by the English and Dutch. The apartheid "ideal" was created to secure the economic and social power of the National Party over the black majority.
Tuesday, May 27th, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Biography
Nelson Mandela
The end of Apartheid: 1985-1994
Outcome
Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1818 to the Thembu people (Jongintaba Dalindyebo)

Nelson Mandela was expelled from the University College of Fort Hare for involvement in a student protest and completed his BA degree through the University of South Africa.

Mandela joined the African National Congress in 1944 and helped form the ANC Youth League.

Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for 27 years and was freed in 1990.

Mr. Mandela died in his Johannesburg home on December 5th, 2013 at 95 years of age.
1985: Pieter Botha (leader of National Party) is replaced by F.W. de Klerk, who repealed Population Registration Act and any other legislation that supported apartheid

1990: Mandela released from prison

1994: New constitution takes effect (official end of apartheid), Mandela elected as first democratic president of South Africa
Nelson Mandela's Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa
The Apartheid system was created by the National Party of South Africa to "maintain white domination while extending racial separation" (Stanford College).
The Apartheid policies were passed in 1948 and led to a racially divided South Africa.

Those who were considered "black" were moved into 1 of 10 separate "homelands" created by the National Party, restricting any rights of citizenship and involvement with the political body of South Africa.
Mandela sought to bring unity to South Africa's racially divided government and was faced with imprisonment for 27 years.
Timeline Continued
1960: Sharpeville Massacre, police shot into crowd of 5,000 anti-pass protestors, 69 killed, 180 injured; State of Emergency declared; ANC is banned

1961: Mandela goes underground

1962: Mandela leaves South Africa to gain support for ANC, imprisoned for 5 years upon return

1964: Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment due to treason - Rivonia Trials

1973: The UN General Assembly denounces apartheid

1976: Soweto Massacre; black students fired at for protesting against Afrikaans language requirement

1985: Pieter Botha (leader of National Party) is replaced by F.W. de Klerk, who repealed Population Registration Act and any other legislation that supported apartheid

1986: Mandela's secret negotiations with government officials (non-racial elections)
White domination
Opponents to the Cause
Bibliography
" A Personal Selection of Nelson Mandela's Best Quotes" http://miguelescotet.com/2013/a-personal-selection-of-nelson-mandela-best-quotes/

"Anti-Apartheid Movement." African Activist Archive, n.d. Web. 22 May 2014. http://africanactivist.msu.edu/organization.php?name=Anti-Apartheid+Movement

"Apartheid." History.com<. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 May 2014. &lt;http://www.history.com/topics/apartheid&gt;.

"Biography." Nelson Mandela Foundation. Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, n.d. Web. 23 May 2014. &lt;http://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/biography&g

"Mandela en estado crítico - homenaje." Web. 22 May 2014. &lt;http://www.taringa.net/posts/salud-bienestar/16874527/Mandela-en-estado-critico---homenaje.html&gt;.

Mandela, Nelson. "I Am Prepared to Die.". Pretoria Supreme Court. April 20, 1964

Mandela, Nelson, writ. "It Is An Ideal For Which I Am Prepared To Die". 2013. Web. 24 May 2014.

Nelson Mandela - Biographical." Nelson Mandela - Biographical. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2014. &lt;http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.html&gt;.


Schadaberg, Jurgen. N.d. Photograph. Slate Blog Web. 24 May 2014.
Schadaberg, Jurgen. N.d. Photograph. Slate BlogWeb. 24 May 2014.
"Anyone disobeying these laws will be imprisoned, fined, and/or whipped:" Anti-Apartheid Movement. http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-2AE
Williams, Graemae. N.d. Photograph. Slate BlogWeb. 26 May 2014
" A Personal Selection of Nelson Mandela's Best Quotes" http://miguelescotet.com/2013/a-personal-selection-of-nelson-mandela-best-quotes/
Mandela, Nelson. "I Am Prepared to Die.". Pretoria Supreme Court. April 20, 1964
Bibliography Ctnd.

Schadaberg, Jurgen. N.d. Photograph. Slate BlogWeb. 24 May 2014.

"South Africa Seminar: Info Pages." South Africa Seminar: Info Pages. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2014. &lt;http://www.stanford.edu/~jbaugh/saw/Ajani_Apartheid.html&gt;.

"The History of Apartheid in South Africa." The History of Apartheid in South Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2014. &lt;http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html&gt

"Timeline."-- Nelson Mandela Foundation. Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, n.d. Web. 23 May 2014. <http://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/timeline>.

Williams, Graemae. N.d. Photograph. Slate BlogWeb. 26 May 2014.;.
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