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Copy of HISTORY
Transcript of Copy of HISTORY
Prof. Ms. Thiago Pimenta
Surgimento das atividades físicas racionalizadas: Arqueologia do ombro:
Sobrevivência: Evolução do neo cortex.
HISTÓRIA DAS ATIVIDADES FÍSICAS
By 1000BC. alcohol was consumed in some form in most known cultures.
Knowledge of viticulture, brewing techniques, and the uses for alcoholic products rapidly spread Westward during the time of the Roman Empire.
The spread of Christianity and of viticulture occurred in Western Europe at the same time, through very similar means.
THE MIDDLE AGES
Viticulture & brewing was maintained by monastery monks, who were among the few with the education, resources, and security to do so in the turbulent Middle Ages..
Some wine trade did continue despite deteriorating roads and international relations.
Beer was still commonly used for tithing, commerce, and taxes.
Viticulture continued to flourish in Uzbekistan until the spread of Islam ~700 AD.
Islamic Prophet Muhammad directed his followers to abstain from alcohol,25 but promises them that there will be “rivers of wine” awaiting them in the gardens of heaven (Surah 47.15 of the Qur’an)
PRE-HISTORIA DA EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA
Pré Homérico 2 000-1 100 a.C.
Homérico 1 100-800 a.C
Helênico 338-146 a.C.
Cuidado com o corpo Exaltar os Deuses;
Concílio de Nicéia; Constantino - 325 dc;
V(395) ao XV (1453),
Fim dos jogos olímpicos pelo imperador Teodósio I.
Substituição do paganismo pelo cristianismo
Cristianismo como refúgio dos pobres e escravos;
Horror aos circos (gladiadores) e aos jogos;
Redução pelo gosto aos exercícios físicos;
Fechamento da península Ibérica - 711;
Cruzadas séc. XI, XII e XIII exigiam preparação militar;
Necessidade dos jogos e torneios para adestramento;
- Tomada de Constantinopla em 1453;
- Reconcilia a educação moral, intelectual e física;
- Aprimoramentos na área da educação;
- Retorno do caráter educacional das práticas de exercícios físicos;
- Pensamento voltado ao Homem;
AUTORES DA RENASCENÇA
Erasmo de Roterdam (1467-1536);
Novas formas de se pensar a educação do corpo;
Praticas ao ar livre, liberdade de exercícios;
"Não é o bastante enrigecer a alma, é preciso, também enrigecer os músclos" Montaingne.
GINÁSTICA ALEMÃ OU MOVIMENTO GERMÂNICO
OS PRIMEIROS SISTEMAS REGULARES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA
- Surgem a partir da segunda metade do séc. XVIII;
- Obedecem a princípios pedagógicos; GINÁSTICA
- Basedow (1723-1790);
- Ling (1776-1839);
- Amorós (1770-1848);
RISE OF TEMPERANCE
“As early as the middle of the fifteenth century some attempts were made to bring about ‘Sunday closing’” in England. This included not only alcoholic beverages but also other sales as well.
Bickerdyke, John. The Curiosities of Ale and Beer: An Entertaining History. London: Spring Books, 1965, p 115.
Through the 18th century there was growing concern in Europe over the negative effects of drunkenness, which was reflected by a number of changing legal ordinances...
Rum was a major product in the "Triangle Trade." Rum was traded for West African slaves, who were traded for more molasses to be made into rum.
Distilling industries relied on the expansion of sugar production in the Caribbean.
Distilled drinks were found throughout the West and were introduced to the Americas in the 16th century.
Except for several tribes in the Southwest, North American Natives had no alcoholic products before their introduction by Europeans.
When the Puritans loaded the Mayflower, there was more beer on board than water.
Cultivation of hops began in Virginia in 1648
Boston had its first rum distillery..
Soon almost every major town from Massachusetts to the Carolinas had a rum distillery.
Brewing was one of the earliest industries in America.
1540- Brandenberg prohibited brewing
and drinking of Sundays & holy days.
1557- The Nuremberg council complained
of the daily accidents caused by drunkenness
1580's - Spread of Puritanism brought increasingly negative attitudes toward drunkenness
1599 - A German professor criticized the drinking of toasts, noting that it often resulted in problems such as the fighting of duels...
1602- English Parliment passed “The Act to Repress the Odious and Loathsome Sin of Drunkenness.”
1630- Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts attempted to outlaw all alcoholic beverages in Boston
1673- A petition was made to English Parliament for legislation to prohibit brandy, coffee, mum, tea and chocolate “for theese greatly hinder the consumption of Barley, Malt, and Wheat, the product of our land.”
1720- The prohibition of spirits was attempted in the colony of Georgia, but failed.
1750~1800- Some "sobriety circles" were formed in North American Native tribes, which were later a basis for larger temperance organizations.
TEMPERANCE - POST 1800
Numerous problem came of drunkenness amongst industrialization, urbanization, and social changes throughout the 1800's... While drunkenness was a non-issue on the farm, drunkenness in the confines of growing cities and factories proved problematic.
1818- Temperance societies could be found forming anywhere Protestantism is found
1880's- Several U.S. states adopted prohibition
ALCOHOL AT 1900
In 1900, famous WCTU member Carry Nation began destroying saloons with her hatchet. Temperance movements continued to gain influence into the era of prohibition (1920-1933). Some organizations believed a world without alcohol was desirable and attainable. The Women's Christian Temperance movement was so zealous in promoting this goal they damaged the root beer industry during a three year boycott (1898) when they falsely assumed it to be an alcoholic beverage. At the same time, industrial capacity for alcohol production was increasing by the year. With the fall of the Ottoman Empire alcohol production began anew in many Middle Eastern societies.
Austin, Gregory A. Alcohol in Western Society from Antiquity to 1800: A Chronological History. Santa Barbara: ABC, 1985.
Bradel, Fernand. Capitalism and Material Life 1400-1800. 1975.
Chafetz, Morris E. Liquor: The Servant of Man. Boston: Brown & Co., 1965.
Ghaliounqui, Paul. Fermented Beverages in Antiquity. New York: Academic Press, 1979.
Hanson, Prof. David J. http://www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol/timeline/index.html. State University of New York. 1997-2015. http://www2.potsdam.edu/alcohol/timeline/index.html (accessed February 7, 2015).
Uncorking the past: The history of drinking. http://www.economist.com/node/883706.
Alcohol is a contributor to disease, disability, and high death rates in countries of all incomes.
Production of beer and spirits has been largely consolidated to a few global corporations.
Moderate consumption of beer, wine or distilled spirits reduces heart disease. Moderate drinkers tend to be healthier and live longer than either abstainers or alcohol abusers.
Praticas de exercícios físicos;
Tumbas de Beni Hassan:
Valorização do corpo.
Práticas de exercícios para a guerra;
Conquistas de território;
Voltadas para a Elite;
O glamour de ser Gladiador;
EVOLUÇÃO DO NEO-CORTEX
EVOLUÇÃO DO OMBRO
Inicia com Carlos Magno (768-814) Séc VIII;
Torneios de cavaleiros séc. X;
Séc. XIII muitos cavaleiros morriam em torneios;
Necessidade dos mesmos para as Cruzadas;
Treinamento em esgrima, arco e flecha; lança e equitação;
Os jovens praticavam corrida, luta, saltos, escaladas, natação.
- 1770 com Basedow
- Inspiração das idéias de Rousseau e Lock;
- Guths Muths (1759-1839) - Ginástica como educador juventude;
- Jahn (1778-1852) - ginástica alemã de cunho patriótico;
- Spiess (1810-1852) - ginástica escolar.
27 a.C. – 476 d.C.
70 milhões de pessoas;
21% da população mundial;
Lutas entre a Plebe e a Nobreza;
Prazeres do Circo;
1 período - 573 a.C a 510 a.C fundação da cidade
2 período - 516 a 30 a.C Oligarquia e expanção territorial
3 período - Invasão dos germanos
Continuação do Ócio
Curialização dos Guerreiros
Panen et Circencis (Espetáculo)
Anfiteatro Flaviano (Coliseu)
Espetáculos utilizados pelo Governo como Forma de Contenção
A preparação física só fazia parte da instrução dos soldados a partir dos 14 anos;
Desejava-se a beleza, a técnica e o prazer desportivo;
Desvinculados do carácter religioso que tiveram na civilização helênica;
Espectáculos adquiriram uma função política;
Fuga da Dor;
Satisfação dosada dos prazeres Físicos;
Prazer com dimenção ética;
Prazer do repouso (
Ausência de Dor (
Renuncia aos prazeres que podem gerar aflição;
Aceitar a dor quando portadora de um bem futuro