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American Literature Movements
Transcript of American Literature Movements
Started because people wanted to encourage others to come to America
Started documenting history to tell the people back in England so they would send money to the settlements John Smith Knighted by the Transylvania Prince
Educated at the King Edward VI grammar school John Smith wanted to get his employers, British Crown, to give him more money. Search for new spiritual roots
Spirit of optimist invoked by the praise of uncharterd frontier
Oppurtunity for expansion, growth, and freedom
Explored what it meant to be an American
Reaction against rationalism of the Enlightenment Washington Irving Named after George Washington
Credited with inventing the expression "The Almighty Dollar"
Mentored Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allen Poe The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Inspiration
It was a place close to his hometown of Tarrytown, NY
Similar to German legends - "Tam O'Shanter" by Robert Burn
Tales of encounters with super natural
Inspired other Romantic Writers
There was a need for American Literature to be developed Story Line
Ichabod Crane competes for Katrina Van Tassel with Brom Bones
Crane leaves a party at the Van Tassel home and is followed by the headless horseman who is thought to be Brom Bones.
Crane never returns to the city and Katrina marrys Bones. Inspired by German and British Romanticism
Tied into notions of American Individualism
Promotes the idea of nature as divine and the human soul as inherently wise
Slavery, Civil War, Womens rights, growing industrialism, and class division Nathaniel Hawthorne Was born as "Hathorne" but later added the "W"
Inducted as a Phi Beta Kappa in 1824 at Bowdoin College The Blithedale Romance Inspiration
An experimental Socialist community populated by various transcendentalist thinkersand writers Story Line
Utopian society of Blithedale
Blithedale experiment fails because of betrayls and complication, and Xenobia ends up drowning. Mans relationship with God
Freedom of religion
Glory to God
Interpretation of Bible verses Jonathan Edwards In 1741, he preached and authored America's most famous sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
Wife was Sarah Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Effect
Scared the congregation to act better or else they were going to hell Summary:
Emphasized the widely held belief that Hell is a real and functional place.
Edwards hoped that the imagery and message of his sermon would awaken his audience to the horrific reality that he argued awaited them should they continue without Christ.
The underlying point is that God has given humanity a chance to rectify their sins. Michael Wigglesworth Emigrated to American in 1638 and settled in New Haven
Grauated from Harvarch
He preached at Charlestown, Mass., in 1653–54
Pastor at Malden from 1656 until his death. The Day of Doom Effect:
Made people baptize their babies and follow Gods law or else they would receive punishment in Hell Summary:
Describes the Day of Judgement
God will send sinners to hell William Bradford Taught himself Greek
Baptized at Austerfield, Yorkshire, England on March 19, 1590 Of Plymouth Plantation How
Its colonial literature because its an informative journal
A story of the Pilgrims and the early years of the colony they founded Age of Reason
Pragmatism 1750 - 1810 1850 - 1913 1914 - 1945 1865 - 1890 1607 - 1783 1970 - Present 1640 - 1750 1828 - 1865 1836 - 1846 His father was a corset-maker
Paine was a deist Thomas Paine Common Sense Effect
Ignited the revolutionary spirit in the American colonies.
He discredited a Kings right given by "God" by using Enlightened thought.
Presented the American colonists with an argument for freedom from British rule at a time when the question of independence was still undecided. Benjamin Franklin Taught himself to read French, Spanish, Latin, and Italian.
Expert swimmer as a teenager The Autobiography Effect
Received widespread praise, for its historical value as a record of an important early American and for its literary style
Benjamin Franklins recall of his life up to his death Henry David Thoreau In April of 1844, Thoreau and a friend took another river trip along the Sudbury River. The two men burnt down 300 acres of forested land when a cooking fire they started in a stump got wildly out of control. Walden How
Personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, satire, and manual for self reliance
Reflects Transcendentalist ideologies
Journal entries and prepared lyceum lectures on his experiment in living at the pond. Edgar Allen Poe Poe published his first volume of poetry in 1827 The Fall of the House of Usher The Fall of the House of Usher How
Has aspects of Gothic Romanticism
A man meets up with his childhood friend who has been diagnosed with some type of illness Realism Local color
Set in present or recent past
Exposed political corruption, economic inequity, business deception, women rights problems, etc.
Reaction against romanticism Robert Frost He won 4 pulitzer prizes, 1924, 1931, 1943
He also read a poem at John F. Kennedy's inaguartion The Road Not Taken How
The speaker reflects on how he plans to take the road that he didn't take another day, but suspects that he probably won't ever come back. Instead, far off in the future, he'll be talking about how his decision was final and life changing. Mark Twain Born the year Halley's comet came. He vowed he wouldn't die till he saw the comet. He saw the comet the day before he died. He died at 6:30pm on April 21, 2010 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn How
Characterized by local color regionalism
The story of Huck and Jim, and their escape towards freedom. Stephen Crane 14th child of Mary Helen Crane and Rev. Jonathan Crane Maggie: A Girl of the Streets How
Because its adepiction of the devastating environmental forces that ultimately destroy a hopeful woman, its shows naturalistic elements
The story of Maggie and her life in NY and what happens when she becomes involved with Pete Scientific ideas and principles
Characters believe in accordance with the impulses of animals in nature
Reaction against the idea that moral judgement mattered
Theory that a person's fate is determined soley by heredity and environment Kate Chopin She was the third of five children but she was the only child to live past the age of twenty-five. The Awakening How
Moral judgement is more important
The story of Edna Pontellier and her life of desire for love and freedom. Highly varies in its manifestations between the arts, like Romanticsm
Roots are in the rapidly growing technology of the late 19th century Ezra Loomis Pound Co-founder of Modernism
Went to Cheltenham College and Pennsylvania University.
Transferred to Hamilton College to gain an MA in 1905 Ripostes How
Represents cultural movements
Collection of 25 poems Francis Scott Fitzgerald Named after Francis Scott Key
Almost name "The Great Gatsby" - Gold-Hatted Gatsby, High Bouncing Lover The Great Gatsby How
Development of technology
Nick Carraway and Gatsby and the American Dream Humorous irony
Anti-heroes Maya Angelou She grew up in St. Louis and Stamps, Arkansas. She is an author, poet, historian, songwriter, playwright, dancer, stage and screen producer, director, performer, singer, and civil rights activist. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings How
A coming of age story
Story of how strength of character and a love of literature can help overcome racism and trauma Ender's Game How
Imperiled humankind who have barely survived two conflicts with the Formics (an insectoid alien race also known as the "Buggers"). In preparation for an anticipated third invasion, an international fleet maintains a school to find and train future fleet commanders. Orson Scott Card He is known as a political commentator and as an advocate and apologist for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.