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Copy of Direct Instruction
Transcript of Copy of Direct Instruction
Practice and Drill
Didactic Questioning By: Huda Ahmed
and Caitlin Robins 1. clear teaching, daily review, and homework checks It is most effective when: 2. presentation of new content and skills
3. Teacher monitoring and guided student practice
4. Feedback and reinforcement
5.weekly and monthly evaluations It is teacher centred Students are engaged in academic tasks most of the time Supporters: Improves student achieve Teachers role is to teach and students to learn Knowledge and skills are mastered quickly High academic gains on standardized tests Benefits at-risk students Opponents: Teachers are authority figures and students are passive Instead of direct instruction, constructivism is best in meeting the needs of all students Teachers need to become coaches actively engaging students to think for themselves-mega cognitive ability Constructivism Classroom Instructional practices in a constructivist classroom: Make up their own problems and work out their own methods to investigate the problems Design and conduct experiments and projects on their own or with others Make their own choice of topic or problem Can Direct Instruction and Constructivism Coexist? How? Direct instruction and constructivism are not mutually exclusive Students can still construct personal knowledge or meaning background through direct instruction There needs to be a balance of direct instruction with constructivist practices Teaching the big ideas and general facts should be followed by application and problem solving. There needs to a time for information to be memorized and skills mastered The major features of direct and explicit instruction are: 1. Teaching in small steps
2. Providing guidance during initial practice
3. Having students practice after each step
4. Certain components are essential in explicit instruction:pacing, processing opportunity, frequent student responses, and feedback Ways to improve direct instruction? It should be flexible Teach students to observe and activate prior knowledge Computer-assisted instruction Group tutorials Workbooks Panels, debates, brainstorming CDs/DVDs Individual and group presentations Lecture Lecture can be used as "straight lecture", combined with other methods (visuals, Q & A, or discussion), or use "lecturettes"
Lecture is Most Effective When:
Subject matter is factual with little problem solving
A new subject is being introduced
Time is limited
It is later reinforced using another technique Tips for Lecture Give overview of what is going to be presented and why, recap again at end of lecture.
Keep information to a minimum - 5 or 6 points
Pause to give listeners a chance to catch up and summarize for themselves.
Challenge thinking, ask rhetorical questions.
Supplement with visuals, demonstrations, and discussions.
Act like you are interested in the material, and lecture as though you are addressing each person in the room individually. Handouts Handouts can allow you to present more material as students are freer to think. Watch out for wandering minds if students know they are getting a handout and don't have to take notes or listen.
Tips for Effective Handouts:
Provide overview of what is to be presented.
Handout should be logical and sequential to follow lecture and teach students how their note taking should look.
Should highlight key ideas, points, and sub-points Tips for Teaching Effective Note Taking Don't assume that students know how to take notes - it is a skill which must be taught and practiced
Encourage them to put ideas in their own words
Have students hand in their notes or switch with partners to check for accuracy
Provide closing summaries Assigned Questions This is a teacher centered method.
It typically involves the teacher handing out questions, assigning them from a textbook, or written on the board, to be taken up together next class.It can be used to introduce facts, concepts, generalizations, argument, and points of view.
Students should answer in their own words.
Questions should be valuable and students must have research and independent study skills first.
Teacher should be available to circulate during seatwork to reinforce correct answers
Keep in mind some students may not benefit greatly from this method depending on learning style.
Normally it is best to combine this method with others. Tips for Using Assigned Questions Provide advanced or post organizers so students see the value of the questions.
Select good questions - use a mix of questions that are convergent - single correct answer, and divergent - several correct answers.
Encourage use of their own words
Teach summarizing skills
Build bridges between present, past, and future learning
Think about how you can incorporate other methods to overcome the shortcomings of this technique Practice and Drill This is used after lecture and assigned question to "overlearn" the material to remember it and be able to use it in new contexts. If this practice and drill is done well it can polish a skill or a habit and enhance the ability to recall and apply information.
When Practice and Drill are Effective
If original learning was thorough and included problem solving.
If you are trying to promote long-term retention and automatization.
It is effective to link past and present learning. Tips for Using Practice and Drill Make sure activity is clearly understood, students should not be practicing errors!
Set a practice schedule
Only drill a few skills at a time
Make sure students know why they need the skill
Make it fun
Provide feedback and positive reinforcement
To aid transfer make practice similar to the actual use of the skill
Provide regular opportunities to transfer the skill
Don't place too much pressure, stress self-competition not other competition. Didactic Questioning In this line of questioning the teacher is in control. Questions tend to be convergent, and low cognitive often beginning with who, what, when, why, how. Danger is that questions such as these are simple and often encourage a lot of guessing and hand waving while discouraging really insightful answers. These questions are best used to test comprehension and recall, and are more effective if frequent "why" and "what ifs" are asked. 6. Time is short The teacher usually spends some time lecturing; then guides the students through a complex problem, with the problem broken down into simple steps; then the students are given, one by one, the simple steps to carry out on their own Does not provide critical thinking skills Lack of social learning and sharing ideas Students ask questions, explore ideas and research skills Summary It is heavily teacher centred Most common method in direct instruction are lecture and assigned questions It often involves note taking and practice/drill for skill acquisition Direct instruction can be valuable and exciting with media and other technologies Direct instruction should be balanced with other strategies like constructivism Discussion Did you see lecture used in your placement during your first block?
Did you use lecture yourself? What were some of the pros and cons?
Do you have any tips for other teachers of how to make lecture more effective? Discussion Think Pair Share With the person next to you try to come up with some ways to combine other teaching methods with assigned questions in order to make it more effective for student learning. You will have 4 minutes and then we will share as a class.
Feel free to draw on your experiences! After watching this video do you feel that you would be prepared to wait on tables?
Could you have used further instruction?
What could this trainer have done additionally to help you feel more prepared to wait on tables? Group work, knowledge is better in groups and greater than the sum of individuals Teach for understanding What effective strategies did you use during direct instruction? How did you use technology during direct instruction?