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The Evolution of Citation
Transcript of The Evolution of Citation
Sam Ebert Richard White's Histories "As bees take honey from different flowers, so we must take materials from all sorts of different authors and, once they have been systematically collected, store them away, as it were, in the proper combs." White turned to the model of the endnote borrowed from twenty-four ancient histories published by Annius of Viterbo in 1498. Warfare is Serious Business Published in 1595, Justus Lipsius's military manual was a carefully crafted work on antiquarian histories. Antiquary histories relied heavily on precise maneuvers and their authors were very concerned with citation. Citation could also be used as a defensive measure such as the case in 1605 when Ben Jonson published the play "Sejanus" which was performed with citations imbedded into the performance. This was useful because he needed to establish the work in a historical context to avoid charges of sedition. Citation as a Defensive Measure It was still over eighty years later until we would see a breakthrough in the footnote. In 1689 Richard Simon, a Catholic monk, enraged from being criticized on a previous work submitted for approval footnotes that gave reference, marginal notes, and even the entire text of the citation. From that work footnotes were to become a staple of academic papers. Plagiarism Concerns In the revised 1596 edition of his "Recherches de la France," Etienne Pasquier admits that many of his readers complained "that at every turn I used some old author to confirm my statement." Indeed, he was described both as pedantic and lazy, if not a plagiarist, the notion being that by including too much of others' texts, he was merely padding his own history. The converse of this problem was his concern that by providing citations, he made it possible for later writers to plagiarize his work by turning to the same texts as though they had made the original discoveries, and omitting his name completely from their own citations, if they even provided any. Citation a Complete Bore Voltaire the famous French enlightenment philosopher argued that the facts and dates of citation were "empty, sterile" in 1768.  But this view met with strong opposition from authors in works such as S. A. Tissot's "The Health of Scholars" in it he proclaimed that "only those authors who had written works which were absolutely complete and in need of no further development by their successors ... had a right to forgo citations." Title One of the first methods was the Chicago Manual Style of citation who's first edition was printed in 1906. It was a collection of papers to help typesetters at the press turn handwritten documents into books that were both well and consistently formatted. Through the years the changes became larger, especially with the introduction of the internet. Google Scholar Introduced in November of 2004, Google Scholar provides citation index for humanities online.
Displays different article versions according to URL
Allows one to look forward to articles that cite the reference found instead of backwards.
Limitations of database.
Citations can sometimes differ between different article versions Conclusion Citation is a self-serving system that is constantly evolving, allowing us to build on thought and progress through writing papers with original viewpoints while borrowing from those that have been presented in the past. Endnotes Impact Factor Modern Plagiarism from the internet A Perfect Circle of Citation In the early 1960's the term "impact factor" began to describe the concept of a journal's impact by the frequency with which it is cited relative to its size, so great works could be identified without assuming the largest would be the best. Eugene Garfield claims to have coined the term and believed that different styles of citation among fields would begin to change techniques. So how did it all come about? Even South Park is vulnerable! Literacy Rates were below 60% until 1603! But as literacy grew so did the need of a way to build on what had already become evident. Chicago Manual Style MLA Style The MLA Style Manual claims itself as "the standard guide for graduate students, scholars, and professional writers " It differs from Chicago in that it uses in-text parenthetical references, followed by a detailed alphabetical bibliography. The overall goal of MLA is to be "simpler and more concise that other styles."