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365 Current research methodology A framework for Understanding CB Current & Emerging Perspectives

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Adrienne Czerwin-Abbott

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Transcript of 365 Current research methodology A framework for Understanding CB Current & Emerging Perspectives

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Jacob 1988-
Human ethology, Ecological psychology, Holistic ethnography, Cognitive anthropology,Ethnograpy of communities, Symbolic interactionism

Atkinson, Delamont & Hammersly 1988
Symbolic interactionism, Anthropology, Sociolinguistics, Ethnomethodology, Neo-Marxism, Feminist.

Denzin & Lincoln 2005-
Case studies, Ethnograpy, Participant observation, Performance ethnograpy, Phenomenology, Ethnomethodology, Grounded theory, Life history, Historical method, Action & applied research, Clinical research.

Qualitative Research
Traditions

INDIVIDUAL LIVED EXPERIENCES- Phenomenological, Feminist, Life histories

LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION – Sociolinguistic, Narrative analysis, Discourse analysis, Conversation analysis

SOCIETY AND CULTURE – as seen in Ethnography, Action research, Case studies, Grounded theory

3 Main Genres
(Gallborg & Gall 1996)
Typical methods – interviews, observation,
diaries, collecting narratives, documentary
sources, historical research, participation in
context, gathering contextual information
in natural setting.
Most Popular Approach -Ethnography – inquiry from ‘inside’ ‘Emic’
Social – meanings construed from social arrangements and speech acts via participant observation.
Cultural – meaning in people’s heads
Classical realist – researcher remains outsider preserves objectivity, makes field notes, and shares knowledge with people from his home culture.
Urban – engaging with a subculture with subjective involvement.
Types of Ethnography
Derived from Anthropology.
Culture is central concept for Ethnographer
Behaviour observed in natural setting
Long term immersion in the field
Data collected from variety of sources
Participant Observation & conversation mostly
Focus on single setting or group
Analysis is interpretation of meaning, of roles, ceremonies, rituals, artifacts
Key Features
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Major limitation of traditional ethnography was the failure of include detailed info regarding the ethnographer’s class, race, gender, sexual orientation & how this affects his journey in understanding. He cannot be impartial. The moving perspective that the ethnographer encounters on journey should be recorded & included, & reflected upon. The task is not to determine the ‘truth’ but reveal the multiple truths apparent in the lives of others.
Critical & Reflexive Ethnography
Feminist theory
Can be used to frame research. It names and values womens’ subjective experiences as it affects CB

Critical race theory

Queer theory
Identity is not unitary but multiple, and constructed out of sexual orientation
Critical Ethnography
Taps into socially constructed virtual world through e-mail, web based surveys, chatroom interviews, discussion boards, online journaling

This removes the social context cues such as gender, age, race, class, facial expression, resulting in disinhibiting effects upon group participants
Internet Virtual Ethnography
Blurs the distinction between researcher and participant. It involves full collaboration between researcher and participant in posing the questions to be pursued and in gathering data. To respond to participant requires a cycle of research, reflection, and action.
Action Research
Figurational Approach
Observation
Interviewing
Hallmark of ethnography
Obtrusive or unobtrusive
Ethnographer becomes part of world of informants
Uses photography, video, audio, diaries (may also be
done by informants )
Photos, video, etc can then be used as projective
devices
Observation
Discomfort

Ethical dilemmas

Remaining unobtrusive

Identifying the big picture

Attending to huge amount of fast moving complex behaviour

Proposal writer should describe explicit note organizing
& management strategies

Participant observer, requires total immersion & personal reflections are integral
Challenges
Fully structured

Semi-structured –interviewer is free to modify order of questions as appropriate

Unstructured – interviewer has general area of interest but lets conversation develop within the area

Indepth/ Phenomenological

Focus groups

Ethnographic (newest form)
Interviews - Types
Ethnographic

Used to gather cultural knowledge through 3 types
of question:

Descriptive- broad allows researcher to learn about participants views on their experiences, daily activities,
objects and people in their lives.

Structural- how participants organize their cultural
knowledge into categories

Contrast- meaning in terms of what it is and is not
Ethnographic Interviewing

Using ‘self as instrument’

Obtrusive/unobtrusive balance – non-directive

Awareness of one’s hidden assumptions

Respondent sizing up observer danger
Unstructured Interviews (in-depth, depth or informant interviews)
Prior to interview- research writes full description
of his own experience, bracketing off (epoche) his preconceptions

3 phases- past experience, present experience, and
joining two together to describe essential experience with phenomenon.
Phenomenological Interview
Interviewing is time-consuming

May be better to have two short interviews

Access may be a problem

Travel may be necessary

Scheduling problems

Expensive

Decision to tape record
Logistical and Resource Issues
Affect relationship badly
Inhibiting factor
Technical problems
Time consuming transcribing recordings
Allows Interviewer to concentrate on questioning
Accuracy more assured
Can re-listen
Unbiased record
Direct quotes can be used
Permanent record
Advantages and Disadvantages of Audio Recording of Interview
Closed

Open (more flexible, allow for more probing, and can lead to unanticipated answers)

Probes( anything more?, silence, enquiring glance, repeat backs)

Prompts ( prompt cards suggesting range of possible answers)

Types of Questions
used in Interviewing

Introduction
Warm up
Main interview
Risky questions left last
Cool-off
Closure
Sequence of Questions
Long questions
Double-barrelled
Use of jargon
Leading/biased
Questions to Avoid
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Review of analytic categories (lit review)

Review of cultural categories

Develop schedule- Introduction,List of topic headings and key points, set of associated prompts, closing commentsDiscovery of analytic and cultural categories during interview

Write up


Preparing for the Unstructured
Interview
Appearance

Approach

Familiarity with topic

Attention to wording of questions

Recording of answers

Listen more than you speak

Pose questions in non-threatening way

Eliminate cues which may lead respondents

Enjoy it
General Advice
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Originated in work of Bureau of Applied
Social Research Columbia University 1940’s.
Paul Lazarsfeld & Robert Merton received a
government contract from the ‘office of Facts
& Figures’ to assess audience responses to the
government’s own wartime radio propaganda.
The interviewer role was more ‘active’ & use
of stimulus materials, & verbal cues encouraged.
Focus Group: The Beginning
Focus group interviewees are known to be involved in particular concrete situation.

The situation has been previously analyzed by investigator

Interview guide is prepared

The interview itself will focus on subjective experiences of the participants to test the hypothesis under construction

Newest form using internet blog to create virtual focus group
Lazarsfeld & Merton 4 features of Focus Groups
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Explanatory
Explains motives, beliefs, responses, perceptions
Identify causal relationships/ shared understanding, everyday use of lang
Tapping successive layers of consciousness/perspectives
Exploratory
Ideas/Hypotheses for further research Brain storming, generating new ideas
Testing questions/scale items/group dynamics
Background research on problem
Explain/confirm quantitative findings
Exploratory/Explanatory
Focus Groups
Explanatory

Explains motives, beliefs, responses, perceptions
Identify causal relationships/ shared understanding, everyday use of language
Tapping successive layers of consciousness/perspectives
Exploratory

Ideas/Hypotheses for further research Brain storming, generating new ideas
Testing questions/scale items/group dynamics
Background research on problem
Explain/confirm quantitative findings
Exploratory/Explanatory
Focus Groups
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Experiencing

Understanding everyday world of consumer

Examine consumer experience

Social and cultural aspects of behaviour

Language and justifications of consumers
Focus group Types

Exploratory- creating,collecting, identifying,discovering,explaining,
generating thoughts, feelings, behaviours purpose to develop list of criteria to confirm/reject prior hunches. Interest in difference across individuals- heterogeneous

Experiential/phenomenological-observe natural attitudes of group/shared life experiences-homogenous used also for triangulation & confirmation
Exploratory/Experiential
New product development studies

Positioning studies

Habits and usage studies

Packaging assessments

Attitudes study

Advertising/copy evaluation

Promotion evaluation

Idea generation
Use of Focus Groups
Group meets at central location pre-determined time

Moderator introduces topic and encourages group members

to discuss subject among themselves

Ideally discussion threads emerge from group

Enable true feelings, anxieties, frustrations etc to be expressed
Full group – 8-10
Minigroup – 4-6

Conference calls – Skype
anonymity, geographical spread
Types of Focus Group
Cheap alternative to quantitative research

Generating data that not intended to

Implementing more than are necessary

Taking technique insufficiently seriously

Taking technique too seriously
Abuses of Focus groups
Group Size,Composition,Unique Features ?

Homogeneity or not?
May be better to have multiple focus groups
Synergy – combined effect of group produces wider range of info
Snowball- trigger chain of responses
May be recorded
Group interaction very important to success
Homogeneous/heterogeneous
Social class
Age
Race
Gender
Culture
Personality
Group Composition
Preparation -Develop Discussion guide

Get everyone talking – by introduction, break ice, establish rapport

Open-ended Qs to get discussion going

Move from general to specific

Develop rapport with group, get group relaxed, eager to talk

Focus discussion on topic areas

Change flow without breaking rapport

Be conscious to stages of group formation: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning.
Planning The Focus Group Getting Started
Preparation- developing proposal, research goals, participant criteria, logistics, working with facility, preparing guide, determine external stimuli,
Implementation – arranging rescreening, briefing observers, coordinating interaction with observers, time keeping
Postgroup – Holding briefing, recordings, payments
Moderator Tasks
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Natural characteristics- listening ability (reflective/nonreflective),Excellent STM, well organised, quick learner, high energy, high IQ,sensitivity, insight, empathy, analytic,
Learned skills- Background (Psychology, Sociology, marketing) Prior business experience, category experience, good communications
Evaluating moderator- experience, quality of guide, adequate preparation, added value, awareness of new techniques, level of energy & enthusiasm,control of group
Key Characteristics of Effective Moderator
Do’s –

Find best moderator,
Treat him as member of team,
Encourage creativity,
Leverage his experience
Do’s & Don’ts of Moderator/Client Relationship
Globality- participants recognise they are different

Differentiation – they learn extent of difference

Social Integration- learn how to interact as a group

Mirror reaction- learn what they have in common

Condensing- develop collective consciousness for exchange

Cathexis – More personal info one divulges the more one is liked.
Stages in Focus Group Discussion Process
Sample size small not representative-too few groups used selection of respondents not random
Qs not asked in same way each time-variation may increase responses
Responses not independent- some decisions are made in ‘collective settings’
Results not quantifiable-don’t quantify
Conclusions depend on analyst’s interpretation- use intercoder reliability
Focus Group issues
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Develop rules of behaviour to control respondents
Carefully select respondents
Careful design of Qs
Avoid leading Qs
Encourage balance of contributions
Skilful attention to body language
Do Pilot with aprox 4 people and discuss afterwards
Apply flexibility in revising list of topics
Good Practice
Forming- stick to safe topics while testing moderator & others.
Storming- creating impressions, testing each other, competition, conflict.
Norming- becoming more cohesive, participants take on ideas.
Performing- need for group approval not strong, group loyalty, identity, trust, flexibility and interdependence strong.
Adjourning – 10 mins before end wrap up, summarize, thank you, assure confidentiality
Group Development Stages
Topic guide- clarify research Q, brainstorm
a no of key topics, aim for 10 Qs, include timing
for each topic (15 mins) design prompts and stimulus material. Start with simple Qs, move from general
to specific.

Opening, introductory, key, transition, ending, factual, behavioural, opinions, values, feelings, sensory, open ended, neutral.
Types of Qs
Services provided- group recruitment, ensuring attendance, giving directions,rescreening participants,
Physical plant- reception area, group room, observation room, restrooms
Support material- audio/visual, food, confidentiality, admin, photocopying, sample product, moderator recommendations, hotel/restaurant facilities.
Common problems –room quality, noise, no-shows, professional respondents, late arrivals, hidden costs,
Using a Facility to Conduct Focus Groups
Using Focus groups- where quantitative research is required, as ‘tie breaker’, to generate new ideas, to predict sales, determine awareness of campaigns
Procedural mistakes- research objectives not defined, unsuitable participants, insufficient product awareness, positive feelings only, moderator inadequate, vague guide, inadequate external stimuli, lack of moderator control, observer bias, results quantified, report misused
Common Mistakes
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Focus group screener
Facility contract
Discussion guide

Must-Haves
Use with illiterate communities

Multiple views assessed

Dynamics of interaction observed

Provide info about past behaviour

Use as supplementary source of info triangulation

Use in exploratory hypothesis generation phase of research

Grounded theory development
Benefits of Focus Groups
Mismatch between researchers topic
of interest and participants ability to
provide info

Cannot access what participants do only
what they say they do

Time consuming
Limitations
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Transcribe data using complete group
discussions or abridged transcripts. Early
and continuous analysis of each of a series
of FGs will help determine the number and
focus of subsequent FGs, allow for revision
of topic guides or moderating techniques.
Read transcripts for general impression then
look at specific opinions and topics, identify
substantive parts of transcript that relate to
research Q and code them using Ethnograph,
Nud*ist, Nvivo 8
Analysis
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
The website of American Evaluation Association
lists 30 different software applications for analyzing
text, audio files and video clips. But software is only
a tool to help with some of the mechanical aspects
of analysis the hard analytic thinking must be done
by the researcher.

Most commonly used applications are Atlas.ti,
Ethnograph and NVivo. Files of recordings can be
entered directly into software applications.



 
Managing, Analysing and Interpreting data

Analysis can range from sumarising to identifying themes, to elaborate coding schemes.

Discussion summaries range from descriptive to analytical. Analytical synthesizes, structures, interprets data.

Elaborate coding schemes to organise the data into first and second order themes. Record the order in which issues are discussed, the intensity of feelings, reasons behind feelings, deception, generalizability.
Analysing the Data
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
All speech recorded including unfinished sentences
& brief utterances – mm or eh

Overlapping speech (interruption) identified

Speech should not be tidied up- hesitations,
restarts, pauses put in transcripts

Marked body movements, gestures, laughter
noted

Always identify speakers

Volume of speech indicated
Transcription Guidelines
The process of bringing order, structure, and
interpretation to a mass of collected data is messy,
ambiguous, time-consuming, creative and fascinating.
It does not proceed in a linear manner. Qualitative
data analysis is a search for general statements about relationships and underlying themes. It explores,
describes and builds grounded theory.
Analysing is messy
At the extreme end are technical scientific and standardized strategies in which the researcher
assumes an objective stance and categories are
stipulated in advance at the other end are
immersion strategies in which categories are
not prefigured and which rely heavily on
researchers intuitive and interpretative capacities.
In between are template strategies which start with
sets of codes to apply to data and then undergo
revision as the analysis proceeds in tandem with developing grounded theory.
Strategies
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott

Organising the data

Immersion in the data

Generating categories and themes

Coding the data

Offering interpretations through analytic
memos

Searching for alternative understandings

Writing the report
7 Phases of Analysis
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Coding
This brings meaning and coherence to themes patterns and categories developing linkages and a story line that makes sense. The researcher should constantly challenge the explanations and interpretations he is putting forward through using analytic induction, constant comparative analysis and building grounded theory. The researcher goes for saturation of the data and searches for negative instances of the pattern.
Interpretation
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
To ensure complete credibility
strategies such as triangulation,
member checking, peer debriefing,
intercoder reliability, audit trails
should be employed.
Insuring Credibility
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Life Histories
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Narrative Inquiry
Thematic – most common approach. Themes set during design phase of research are matched with samples of talk. Talk is colour coded / alphabetic/numeric systems through iterative process with new categories emerging as data examined. Material is cut and pasted so that extracts sharing common codes are placed together. Then a more in-depth analysis is done addressing the relationships between themes.
Thematic & Discursive Analysis
Participants reasoning

Time spent on issues

Intensity of expression

Internal contradictions

Participants words should
not be taken at face value but
interpreted in broader
socio-cultural context
‘Descriptive’ account (top of investigator’s mind )
DA draws attention to the frequently ignored
interactional features of transcripts (the performance of talk).

It reveals what kinds of positions are being established by those taking part in the interaction.

3 Types
Conversational analysis (Sacks 1995)
Foucauldian inspired
Critical Discourse approach
Discourse Analysis (DA)
Thematic relies on viewing language as having ‘one true meaning’ more positivistic
DA looks at language in broader social context, it searches for variability, ambiguity, contradiction rather than consensus both between and within accounts.
DA attempts to explain and predict these
If similarities between statements that occur frequently – take at face value
Difference Between Thematic & Discourse Analysis (Conversational Analysis)
Aims to provide elaborate account of way talk in interaction is contructed. Individual speakers are heroes or villains of drama of talk. Elaborate transcription system preserves tiny detail of speech- pauses, sighs, inhalations, exhalations, overlap, whispers, repairs (correcting), delays.

Accountability –speakers account for why they made a statement, agreement/disagreement
Conversation Analysis (CA) Sacks 1995
As people engage in conversation they set up various accounts and versions of events, and these alter during the course of interaction (talk in interaction). They position and are positioned in ways which serve functions. People present themselves as clever or naive, mysterious or ordinary. This is called a ‘bottom up’ approach.
Key Feature of CA
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Use credible SEOs
Cross reference with other sources
Follow SE search tips
Bookmark best sites and develop tool kit
Search subject specific pathfinders
Sign up for newsletters, webAlerts, and RSS feeds
Secondary Research on Web -Guidelines
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
SMART-specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timely objectives
Internal data – sales, customer lists, internal surveys, annual accounts, sales per visitor, cost per visitor, conversion rates, length of time on site, pages visited, subs to newsletter, cancellations, reponse to campaigns, impact of site design changes
Stages of Secondary CB Research online- SMART
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Budget constraints
Depth of information required
Availability of information
How quickly information is needed
Access to the relevant population
Trade off between cost, speed, accuracy
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Respondent is asked to tell a story around a picture or pictures
Can reveal dimensions of the imagination
Requires some sort of narrative or plot
TAT Thematic Apperception Test
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Dramatising relationships between brands with advertising or highlighting decision making

Group members take on roles and act out fantasies

Specific aids – dolls/ houses/settings/masks

Example –’A new family moves into your area, before you see them, you notice that their car is a Lexus. What kind of people would you guess they are by role playing, their personalities, experience, interests etc
Role Playing
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
The product or brand becomes a person
Helps bring brands to life
Feeling, thought, character associations
Respondents project themselves into role of user and non-user
Making up eulogies or obituaries very useful
Personalisation
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Respondent is asked to complete a sentence:

I think mothers who give their children Cheese Strings in their lunch boxes are........
Most people think Cheese Strings are.........
I think Cheese Strings are..........
Cheese Strings remind me of ..............
Sentence Completion
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Word association (Houghton 1936)
Sentence completion (Sachs & Levy 1950)
Symbol matching (Dichter 1960)
Cartoon tests (Rosenweig 1945)
Personification (Vicary 1951)
Shopping list analysis (Haire 1950)
Picture drawing (Buck 1948)
TAT (Morgan and Murray 1935)
Collage (Art Therapy)
Psychodrama (Moreno 1946)
History of Development
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Purpose- respondents insight into own motives,
clues to tell us how consumers feel about brands,
products, services, deeply held attitudes.


Types- Free association, Sentence completion, Picture completion, Analogy, Personalisation, Third person,
Role playing, Psychodrawing, T.A.T. Collages Creative writing.
Projective/Enabling Techniques
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Quantitative – SPSS, Webmetrics
Qualitative – Observational, survey, testing, mystery shopper
Usability testing – in lab on 10-12 respondents who talk though their experiences in real time
Eye tracking technology –employs pupil centre corneal reflection (PCCR) used for banner ad effectiveness shows up hotspots and shortcutting around website
E-mail questionnaires
Web questionnaires-Snapsurveys.com Surveygold.com
Public chat /discussion groups
Online focus groups
Primary Research Online
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Determine most relevant keywords, plurals, alternatives, spellings, narrower terms (fitness trainers) broader terms (footwear)
Use of words locally
Search key people, writers, researchers, companies/brands, organisations, trade & professional associations, government bodies
Refine words
Use advanced search techniques, search tips, help
Use phrase searching ‘market size’
Case Study- Trainer Market Size UK?
Search Engines & Directories
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Speed of accessing information
Cost effective
Good for exploratory research –online agencies on rise
No geographic boundaries
Quality of business information evolving rapidly
Convenience for respondents
Integration across platform –email SMS etc
Sophisticated webmetrics evolving
SEO improving
Multimedia formats – videostreaming on rise
Advantages
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Sampling key issue (biased towards high earner IT literate 25-45 yrs olds
Dubious reliability
Pop up surveys irritate
Unavailability of sampling frames
Online respondents may change address
Cultural/language problems
Bad for concept testing
No body language assessment
Respondents self selected
Disadvantages
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Uses colours, shapes, and symbols to express how consumer feels about brands
Can be analysed for symbolism
Can be used as catalysts for probing when respondents are asked to elaborate on what they are trying to visualise
Psychodrawing
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
What kind of people drive Porshe?
What kind of people drive Mercedes?
What kind of people do you imagine Toyota has most success selling to?
What kind of people does the Toyota dealer have the most trouble selling to?
Third Person Technique
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
These work by freeing respondents from logical constraints and forcing up emotional responses.
The tap into social, product, and personal imagery
Imagining the product/brand not as it is but as something else (music, animal, texture other brand in other product field)
Analogy
Bubble/cartoon picture – repondents fill in the dialogue between users/non –users, before/after, etc
Differentiates between what people say and what they really think
Example – a drawing showing a couple standing in front of a BMW showroom, The respondent is asked to imagine, first what the man says, then what the woman says.
Picture Completion
Ask respondents to say what comes into their head when thinking about a certain topic
Follow up with probes and amplifications
Initial reactions are pragmatic but later show paths to emotional ideas
Useful for relaxing and warming up group
Free Association
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Reasons for using Projectives
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Use credible Ses
Cross reference with other sources
Follow SE search tips
Bookmark best sites and develop tool kit
Search subject specific pathfinders
Sign up for newsletters, webAlerts, and RSS feeds
Secondary Research on Web -Guidelines
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Speed of accessing information
Cost effective
Good for exploratory research –online agencies on rise
No geographic boundaries
Quality of business information evolving rapidly
Convenience for respondents
Integration across platform –email SMS etc
Sophisticated webmetrics evolving
SEO improving
Multimedia formats – videostreaming on rise
Advantages
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Budget constraints
Depth of information required
Availability of information
How quickly information is needed
Access to the relevant population
Trade off between cost, speed, accuracy
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Uses colours, shapes, and symbols to express how consumer feels about brands
Can be analysed for symbolism
Can be used as catalysts for probing when respondents are asked to elaborate on what they are trying to visualise
Psychodrawing
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Dramatising relationships between brands with advertising or highlighting decision making
Group members take on roles and act out fantasies
Specific aids – dolls/ houses/settings/masks
Example –’A new family moves into your area, before you see them, you notice that their car is a Lexus. What kind of people would you guess they are by role playing, their personalities, experience, interests etc
Role Playing
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
What kind of people drive Porshe?
What kind of people drive Mercedes?
What kind of people do you imagine Toyota has most success selling to?
What kind of people does the Toyota dealer have the most trouble selling to?
Third Person Technique
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
The product or brand becomes a person
Helps bring brands to life
Feeling, thought, character associations
Respondents project themselves into role of user and non-user
Making up eulogies or obituaries very useful
Personalisation
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Respondent is asked to complete a sentence:

I think mothers who give their children Cheese Strings in their lunch boxes are........
Most people think Cheese Strings are.........
I think Cheese Strings are..........
Cheese Strings remind me of ..............
Sentence Completion
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Bubble/cartoon picture – repondents fill in the dialogue between users/non –users, before/after, etc
Differentiates between what people say and what they really think
Example – a drawing showing a couple standing in front of a BMW showroom, The respondent is asked to imagine, first what the man says, then what the woman says.
Picture Completion
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Word association (Houghton 1936)
Sentence completion (Sachs & Levy 1950)
Symbol matching (Dichter 1960)
Cartoon tests (Rosenweig 1945)
Personification (Vicary 1951)
Shopping list analysis (Haire 1950)
Picture drawing (Buck 1948)
TAT (Morgan and Murray 1935)
Collage (Art Therapy)
Psychodrama (Moreno 1946)
History of Development
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Quantitative – SPSS, Webmetrics
Qualitative – Observational, survey, testing, mystery shopper
Usability testing – in labl on 10-12 respondents who talk though their experiences in real time
Eye tracking technology –employs pupil centre corneal reflection (PCCR) used for banner ad effectiveness shows up hotspots and shortcutting around website
E-mail questionnaires
Web questionnaires-Snapsurveys.com Surveygold.com
Public chat /discussion groups
Online focus groups
Primary Research Online
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Operators (+) and (-) not
Proximity searching within 5 miles
Search by country
Domain search – org, gov, ac, edu
Limit by date
Limit by file type –html, PDF
Experiment with Google Scholar, Yahoo, Lycos, Ask
Use meta search engines
Consult classified directories/ subject gateways
Evaluate results – authority, credibility, objectivity, recency, accuracy, completeness
Process continued......
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Determine most relevant keywords, plurals, alternatives, spellings, nasrrower terms (fitness trainers) broader terms (footwear)
Use of words locally
Search key people, writers, researchers, companies/brands, organisations, trade & professional associations, government bodies
Refine words
Use advanced search techniques, search tips, help
Use phrase searching ‘market size’
Case Study- Trainer Market Size UK?
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
www.bmrb.co.uk British Market Research Bureau
www.nopworld.com world research agency
www.mori.com research on political, business, social research
www.emori.co.uk specialist in research on electronic technology
Market Research Agencies
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
85% of website visitors go through SE’s, but each SE has different indexing system but common tread is focus on most quality links and optimize commercial rather than public/educational. Sign up for Google Alerts on chosen search query
www.nua.com – for internet trends and stats
www.jupiterresearch.com –generate reports on web traffic and leading sites
www.nielsen-netratings.com generates data relating to online audience behaviour through online panels
Search Engines & Directories
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
SMART-specific, measureable, achievable, realistic, timely objectives
Internal data – sales, customer lists, internal surveys, annual acounts, sales per visitor, cost per visitor, conversion rates, length of time on site, pages visited, subs to newsletter, cancellations, reponse to campaigns, impact of site design changes
Stages of Secondary CB Research online- SMART
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Sampling key issue (biased towards high earner IT literate 25-45 yrs olds
Dubious reliability
Pop up surveys irritate
Unavailability of sampling frames
Online respondents may change address
Cultural/language problems
Bad for concept testing
No body language assessment
Respondents self selected
Disadvantages
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Micro-environment – competitive analysis
Macro-environment – social trends/political/legal
Consumer research – www.mori.com E-Mori targets e-mail groups on specific themes
Marketing mix – price research, NPD concept testing
Sectors – Business information market, Content aggregators (mainly subscription), primary research
Online CB Research - Types
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Respondent is asked to tell a story around a picture or pictures
Can reveal dimensions of the imagination
Requires some sort of narrative or plot
TAT Thematic Apperception Test
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
These work by freeing respondents from logical constraints and forcing up emotional responses.
The tap into social, product, and personal imagery
Imagining the product/brand not as it is but as something else (music, animal, texture other brand in other product field)
Analogy
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Ask respondents to say what comes into their head when thinking about a certain topic
Follow up with probes and amplifications
Initial reactions are pragmatic but later show paths to emotional ideas
Useful for relaxing and warming up group
Free Association
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Overcome direct question barriers
Fun
Involving
Versatile
Answers from individual’s frame of reference
Reasons for using Projectives
Adrienne Czerwin Abbott
Purpose- respondents insight into own motives, clues to tell us how consumers feel about brands, products, services, deeply held attitudes.
Types- Free association, Sentence completion, Picture completion, Analogy, Personalisation, Third person, Role playing, Psychodrawing, T.A.T. Collages Creative writing.
Projective/Enabling Techniques
A Framework for understanding CB

Research -Current & Emerging Research Methods (Introduction 1.2)

We cannot understand and explain the beliefs and actions of any particular individual by examining them as individuals. Consumer actions, beliefs, values, emotions, must be placed within a mobile network of social relations. The network consists of shifting interdependencies between numerous people according to their roles, functions, or kind of service benefits or meanings they provide for each other.
Don’t –
Accept just anyone,
Let cost control selection,
Treat him as outsider,
Control group process,
Over control him,
Be reluctant to challenge his analysis
Marking passages in the data using codes which can take many forms- keywords, colored dots, numbers. The researcher sees the ways in which data codes group together or cluster together and appear in patterned sequences. Writing analytic memos, reflective memos, thoughts, insights is invaluable for generating insights.
This helps to identify linkages among coded data. Inductive analysis is discovering patterns themes and categories in the data. Deductive analysis is where analytic categories are stipulated beforehand according to existing frameworks.
Overcome direct question barriers
Fun
Involving
Versatile
Answers from individual’s frame of reference
Webinar September 2012
Poll of Webinar participants
TAT Thematic Apperception Test
link
Online Focus Groups.....
Five New Tools for Online Social
& Mobile Research Fountainhead
Webinar 6th Oct, 2014
HERMENEUTIC – Researcher commits
to interpreting texts taking his previous
experience and role into consideration.
Additional Reading:

Insights into CB Research Techniques
Designing Qualitative Research 5th ed Marshall & Rossman

Qualitative Market Research A Practitioner’s and Buyer’s Guide, Gordon, Langmaid

Online Marketing: A Customer-Led Approach, Gary, Charlesworth, 2007

Experiential, Interpretive
Online Consumer
Behaviour research
Full transcript