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Transcript of Science Timeline
In the beginning, before all the technology and scientific theories that has risen to this day, there was one crucial building block that these greek philosophers paved down for the future of "science". "A Window on a New World" Pg. 243
Science 10 text book Greek Philosopher - Aristotle One philosopher was the key to this beginning and his name was "Aristotle" of Stagira. The Early Greeks were known for creating and making use of what is now known as the inquiry process. This involves creating a cause and effect question or the 'hypothesis' and an experiment to test the hypothesis. Aristotle carefully recorded his observations rather than to think of what possible answers may be the outcome, this was what helped him leap from normal to extraordinary. His different process of thought and perspective is what made him so different from other Greek Philosophers. 384–322 B.C.E. Fast Forward 900 Years... Hans and Zacharias Janssen Time of Contribution - 1590 Zacharias Janssen (c. 1580 - c. 1638) a Dutch lens-maker was credited for making the first "compound" microscope approximately in the 1590’s. The “compound” microscope that Zacharias Janssen had invented consists of putting an eyepiece, or ocular lens, and an objective into a flanking tube. His microscope is known to have a magnifying power of approximetly 20X at full lens capacity. Being created in the 1590’s it is believed that his father, Hans Janssen, had a large influence in the creation of the instrument. Unfortunately not all of his archives survived after the German bombardment on Middelburg, (here the Janssens’ were from)in the Second World War Galileo Galilei An Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher, Galileo heard about the experiments that the Janssens' were doing, and thought to try some of his own. He later on improved the microscope and eventually created a high powered telescope. (for his time) Date of Contribution - 1609 Robert Hooke Date of Contribution - 1665 Robert Hooke was an English born architect, natural philosopher and a scientist. He is best known for publishing his Micrographia which contains 38 illustrations of plants, animals, and non- living things and what they look like under his microscope. His three lense system worked by concentrating a beam of light on the specimen by passing the light through a glass water-filled flask. Although Hooke made many observations and experiments, one study that Hooke made changed the science world. His interest in the unusual properties of corks drove him to put thin slices of the material under his microscope. There during his recordings for the first time he used the word cells. At that time he did not know that what he had found was remnants of the simplest functions of living cells. "Improvements in Lens Technology" Pg. 244 Science 10 Textbook Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Time of Contribution - 1675 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723) was a Dutch Businessman and Scientist. In 1654 van Leeuwenhoek started his own drapery business. That is when he grew a familiarity to glass processing and grew an interest in microscopes. With his interest in microscopes and his skill with glass he created a very simple single lens microscope. The lens was small and had a very large curvature which was almost a sphere, with this all combination of size and curvature it created the most powerful microscope at that time of more than 200X. The parts only consists of a single lens that is mounted in a tiny hole in a brass plate, and it still produced clearer and at least 10x more powerful images. Far better than any of his colleagues, one of who is Robert Hooke. With his powerful single lens microscope Van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to see moving bacteria, sperm, unicellular protozoa and cell structure. A discovery that inspired many theories and experiments in which sparked a scientific epidemic. Later on he, and Hooke both recorded their findings and sent them to Royal Society of London which published and made available to others. Francesco Redi Francesco Redi (1626 - 1697) and Italian physician is known for questioning many scientists belief that maggots appeared in raw meat through spontaneous combustion. In 1668, Redi set up an experiment that predicted that the flies laid their eggs in the raw meat not spontaneously generate. Redi set out flasks with meat, some sealed with gauze and some were not, open to the air. The result proved that spontaneous generation did not occur as the flasks that were open to the air had maggots and the flask that were sealed with the gauze did not. Although Redi published his observations “Experiments on the Origins of Insects,” the idea of spontaneous generation still existed and belief was strong among scientists. Time of Contribution - 1668 Louis Pasteur Date of Contribution - 1864 Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist, like Francesco Redi, questioned the reality of spontaneous generation. Using Needham’s and Spallanzani’s previous observations Pasteur set up an experiment that would discard the idea of spontaneous generation indefinitely. Pasteur heated up the broth in the flask to kill all the existing microbes, how Needham did, but before he did that he heated up the neck of the flask to make an S - shape while still having it remain open. He had predicted that the there will be no microbes in the broth as the microbes will get stuck at the bottom of the S - shape and will not continue to develop. In this experiment he was correct, a flask that had an open neck developed to have a cloudy broth. Therefore Pasteur altered the perspective of science again, like many previous have before him. "Cell Theory" Robert Brown was a Scottish botanist and microscopist. In 1833, when lenses had technologically advanced and more scientist were making observations, Brown had made a discovery that would help science make a outstanding leap for science. While studying orchids, Brown identified the most important part of the cell structure, the nucleus. Although many scientists have seen the nucleus, Brown was the first to identify its importance to the cell structure and function. Robert Brown Date of Contribution - 1833 Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwann In 1838, Matthias Schleiden (1804 - 1881) a German botanist, reinforced Brown’s theory by stating that the nucleus is the structure which is responsible for the development of the cell. From there Schleiden discussed possibilities with a colleague, Theodor Schwann (1810 - 1882) who in which was an animal physiologist. Schwann and Schleiden both believed that both plant and animal tissue were made of similar cells. Schwann put their hypothesis to the test and found that they do indeed have many similarities, one major similarity that they found was the nucleus. Schwann and Schleiden have now proposed what is now called the “Cell Theory”. Date of Contribution - 1665