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on 18 October 2013

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Specialist area of psychology that focus' on the measurement (metric) of psychological abilities (psycho). They may study one or more general or specific psychological abilities through characteristics associated with personality or mental illnesses.
These psychological abilities are not directly observable as they involve mental processes.
Observations done by psychometricians usually involves testing, analysis and interpretations of test results using complex statistical techniques.
What is Psychometrics?
Fluid Intelligence (Gf)
New or unusual problem solving that depends minimally on skills and knowledge gained through formal education and cultural experience.
Use of reasoning and ability to form concepts.
Not dependent on language.
Crystallised Intelligence (Gc)
Use of knowledge and skills acquired through experience in every day life, including everything learned through formal and informal education in our socio-cultural environment.
Ability to reason using previously learned knowledge or problem solving procedures.
Ability to communicate one's knowledge using the language of one's culture.
Gf - Gc theory
2 American psychologists merged together to create a big table..
How Cattell and Horn worked together.
Cattell and Horn worked together and devised a theory of intelligence known as the Gf-Gc theory, and was used to describe intelligence as being made up of 10 separate and different broad cognitive abilities in an upper stratum. Including 69 narrow cognitive abilities in a lower stratum. The abbreviations of Gf and Gc were originally described by Cattell in 1941 and are called fluid intelligence (Gf) and crystallised intelligence (Gc).
Fluid Intelligence
Fluid intelligence (Gf) takes the use of reasoning for problem solving and in particular solving new, different or unusual problems. Gf uses abilities such as identifying relationships between various different concepts from which drawing a logical conclusion. Fluid intelligence depends on skills and knowledge acquired through either formal or cultural experiences but only to a minimum level. Fluid intelligence is often referred to as biologically based and a “natural” cognitive ability that each individual has but in different amounts. Fluid intelligence is assessed using tasks that do not require language or specific knowledge such as completing a series of number patterns.
Crystallised Intelligence
Crystallised intelligence (Gc) takes the use of knowledge and skills learnt in our everyday experiences including those learnt through formal and informal education within our socio-cultural environment. Gc involves the ability to reason but using procedures and knowledge that has been previously learnt. Crystallised intelligence in assessed using tests of general knowledge and vocabulary such as being able to name and define a term or word.
Visual-Spatial Thinking
Ablity to think using vidual images.
Ability to perceive, analyse and generate visual shapes and patterns.
Ability to store and recall visual information and representations
Auditory Processing (Ga)
Ability to think using auditory information.
Ability to identify, analyse, comprehend, combine and work out the difference between sounds
Ability to store and recall sound patterns (ringtones, pitches ect)
Short-Term Memory (Gsm)
Ability to attend to, store and recall which we are aware of in the immediate situation. (events that occured in the past few minutes)
Long-Term storage and retrieval (Glr)
Alilit to store information and retrieve it over longer periods of time than Gsm (more than a minute)
Cognitive Processing Speed (Gs)
Ability to rapidly and accurately perform easy, well-learned cognitive tasks that require little thinking, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain speed
Use of attention and focused concentration.
Decision/Reaction Time or Speed (Gt)
Ability to react and/or make correct decisions quickly in response to simple stimuli
Quantitative Knowledge (Gq)
Use of mathematical knowledge which has been acquired primarily through formal education experiences.
Reading and Writing (Grw)
Ability to read and write, drawing on the breadth and depth of learned skills and knowledge.
Includes basic skills such as reading and spelling simple words and more complex skills such as reading comprehension and writing a story.
Key similarities and differences between the Gf-Gc and the Three Stratum theory.
Carroll’s second stratum consists of eight “broad” abilities, similar to those in Cattell and Horns Gf-Gc theory.
The Gf-Gc theory consists of two strata, whereas the Three-stratum theory consists of three strata.

What the psychologists agreed on..
That intelligence consists of different cognitive abilities.
Intelligence was best represented as a hierarchy, with different cognitive abilities arranged in separate levels.
Cognitive abilities in the upper part of the hierarchy are called ‘broad’. These broad abilities are made up of more specific cognitive abilities in the lower part of the hierarchy.
What the psychologists did not agree on..
The number of cognitive abilities.
The number of levels.
What some of the cognitive abilities actually involved.
Carroll's Theory and how it relates to the Gf-Gc theory.
Carroll’s theory of intelligence was divided into three strata, general (stratum iii), broad abilities (stratum ii) and narrow abilities (stratum i).
The general stratum consisted of general intelligence.
The broad abilities stratum consisted of fluid intelligence, crystalised intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrivial ability, broad cognitive speediness and processing speed.
The narrow abilities stratum consists of 69 different narrow abilities found in data sets analysed by cattell. It relates to the Gf-gc theory because is it just a less detailed version of the Gf-Gc theory with only 8 of the 10 broad abilities.

Cattell Horn and Carroll's view on Intelligence
Cognitive abilities in the upper part of the hierarchy are described as ‘broad’. These broad abilities are made up of ‘narrower’ or more specific, cognitive abilities in the lower part in the hierarchy.
They all described intelligence as consisting of different cognitive abilities and that intelligence was best represented as a hierarchy, with different cognitive abilities in the separate strata, or levels.
How is it accepted throughout the world?
The CHC model is highly regarded and widely recognised in contempory psychology. The CHC model is used extensively as the basis for classifying and determining the validity, reliability and value of intellegence tests used by psychologists around the world!
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