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By: Tahiry Contreras

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on 29 June 2017

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Transcript of By: Tahiry Contreras

Literature Review
This field has an overwhelming percentage of employees that are women, so logically follows that in this sector, the percentage of female CEO’s would be larger than the percentage of male executives (Nozawa, 2010).

Hypothesis
Hypothesis 1:
The greater the budget of the Nonprofit, the more males on the Board of Directors.
 
Hypothesis 2:
The greater the budget of the Nonprofit, then the more likelihood the Nonprofit is managed by male.

Hypothesis 3:
The dominant gender on the Board of Directors determines the gender of the Director of the Nonprofit.

Research Design
San Antonio, Texas that are transparent to the public
186 nonprofits
Variables
The independent variable is
budget
The dependent variables are the
Board of Directors
and Directors of the organization, and the
area of cause
of the Nonprofits.
The controlled variable is the
assets
of the organizations.

Data Sources
GuideStar

(https://www.guidestar.org/Home.aspx)
Filters: State, City, Profile Transparency, and Financials. Texas, San Antonio, Silver, Gold and Platinum were used for transparency and financials from $1 to $500,000,000. The financials are based on the income (budget) of the organizations and $500,000,000 is the max.

The Form 990

National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities
(NTEE)
Major Groups: I. Arts, Culture, and Humanities – A; II. Education – B; III. Environment and Animals - C, D; IV. Health - E, F, G, H; V. Human Services - I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P; VI. International, Foreign Affairs – Q; VII. Public, Societal Benefit - R, S, T, U, V, W; VIII. Religion Related – X; IX. Mutual/Membership; Benefit – Y; X. Unknown, Unclassified - Z
Findings
Pynes (2000) research indicates that women are underrepresented as board members in general and especially as presidents and treasures. Those executive roles are still male dominant and controlled by an elite male power structure, and that within the sector occupations are distributed per gender.
Gieler (2011) states that about less than half of board members are females and more than half are women hold the position of the chief executive. While these results look at first glance indicate women achieving gender parity, but at a closer examination of the data reveals a somewhat different picture, exposing a hidden reality of gender inequality.
Theoretical Framework
The 
glass ceiling
 theory refers to an invisible barrier that prevents someone from achieving further success.
Women are culturally devalued one would expect that females have a negative relation to occupation prestige because they are seen as less by society. (2009)  
Alice Eagly’s
social role theory of gender
is a theory that explains the inherent physical differences between women and men leading in the workforce according to cultural expectation.
The
devaluation theory
, also known as comparable worth discrimination, is the assumption that women are culturally treated less in society. Occupations that are predominantly overwhelmed by women are seen of less value, than if it was overpowered by men.
Tokenism
is relevant to this research because it extends the existing knowledge that a minority (women) obtains executive leadership roles because the employer needs minority representation.
Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework
Four Categories:
The first category has a ‘less than a $5k’ budget. The organizations under this category are considered ‘small’ organizations. The second group ranges from $1 million to a $5 million budget. The Nonprofits under this category are small-medium size organizations. The third group ranges from $10 million to a $50 million budget and they are considered medium-large size organizations. The fourth group ranges from $100 million to a $500 million budget, and they are large Nonprofits in San Antonio, Texas.  
Conclusion
As so many women are excluded from influential nonprofit leadership positions, are devalued, it appears that the sector is willing to ignore gender discrimination within its own ranks. An issue that ironically is considered none existing in the Nonprofits.
As more and more governmental services are contracted out to nonprofit organizations, public administrators must be aware that the fair representativeness of women among the leadership of nonprofit organizations is essential in “
promoting the legitimacy of public service
.”
Table 1: Budget and Gender of Board of Directors
Based on the results that are shown in the Table 1, the first hypothesis showed a negative correlation. Meaning that one variable increased in value, but the second variable decreased in value. Lastly, the results of this correlation support the first hypothesis proposed. Thus, when the budget increases, then gender (female) representation of the Board of Director decreases.
Table 2: Budget and Gender of Director of Organization
The second hypothesis resulted in a positive correlation between Budget and Organization’s Director. Thereon, as one variable increases in value, the second variable increases in value. Thus the greater the budget the most likely men are managing and holding executive roles in NPO’s. This support the hypothesis proposed.
Table 3: Gender of Board of Directors and Director of Organization
One variable increased in value, the second variable decreased in value, thereon, the representation of gender on the Board of Directors increases, the gender of the Organizations Director decreases. The third hypothesis showed a negative correlation between the Board of Directors and the Organizations Director gender. Thus, supporting the hypothesis proposed.
Gender Diversity in the Nonprofit Sector in San Antonio, Texas:
By: Tahiry Contreras


An analysis of women representation in leadership roles and influential factors that prevent women from achieving equality in the workplace.
PAD 5443 Diversity Policies & Management
Professor Dr. Etienne
Full transcript