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Transcript of Chapter 21:
Types of Collective Behavior
sets of attitudes and self-conscious actions by people seeking to change society
Conditions for the Rise of Social Movements
~Social movements are indications of social conflicts which are inherent in every society.
~Elliot and Shamblin (1992) said that societies have the ability to perceive institutional arrangements despite significant changes taking place.
~According to Ralf Dahrendoef the following are the principles of change and conflict:
Every society is subjected at every moment to change. Social change is ubiquitous
Every society experiences at every moment social conflict. Conflict is ubiquitous.
Every element of society contributes to its change.
Every society rests on constraint of some of its members by others.
is a spontaneous, unstructured, and temporary action by a large number of people who interact with each other.
Smelser's Social Strain Theory
Types of Social Movement
Allan Vincent Obnamia
Growth and spread of generalized belief
Mobilization of participants for action
Breakdown or mechanism of social control
Tilly's Resource Mobilization View
Mobilization of resources
1. Relatively spontaneous forms
Publics or mass audience
2. Crowds- concentrated
characterized by equality
Characteristics of crowds
violent and frightened crowd
Types of crowds
General social movements
5 stages in emergence of social movements
Obstacles to Social Movements
~John E. Conklin (1989) described certain obstacles to the formation, emergence and development of social movements.
First, freedom of speech and right to assembly can be restricted by a repressive government.
Secondly, there can be a problem on how to appeal to prospective constituents and supporters from various sectors of society.
Thirdly, there might be goal displacement where leaders and participants lose sight of the original goals and direction of the movement.
Fourthly, resource mobilization theorists acknowledge the emergence of oligarchies in social movement.
Contemporary Social Movements
Asian Friendship Society, a Movement and a Network
~This movement is formed in the 1970s by a group of concerned leaders from different countries. This was founded by Kimihiko Murakami, a Japanese Christian pastor. The First International Network Seminar was held in Chiang Mai, Thailand in October 1990. It’s to concretize the dream “One Asia Community”. In the early nineties, the International Green Scout Movement was established. This movement involves people from the government and non-government organizations, people’s organizations, students and out-of-school youth participants and leaders from the academes. As of the present, the society has chapters in various parts of Asia and the head office is located in Japan.
The Civil Rights Movement
Women’s or Feminine Movement
First, was to serve equality of rights between men and women.
Second, deeper changes in the way women fit into society.
The Environmental Movement
It presents itself as universal rather than as working on behalf of just one segment of the population.
The environmental movement is global. Every nation has its own environmental problems.
In the United States, civil rights movements were on their heights in the 1950s and 1960s
. Coupled with other factors, the women’s movement was reinforced
In 1962, Rachel Carson wrote and published the book, Silent Spring, which a central role in the formation of the environmental movement
The Environmental Movement differs from the other concerns in some specific points: