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The Berlin Wall

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by

Jeff Reznichek

on 29 May 2014

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Transcript of The Berlin Wall

Escape Attempts
Constructed on Aug 13, 1961
Through the years, the Berlin Wall evolved through four versions:
1.
Barbed-wire
fence (1961)
2.
Improved
barbed-wire fence (1962-1965)
3.
Concrete wall
(1965-1975)
4.
Grenzmauer 75
(Border wall 75) (1975-1989)
The Berlin Wall
1. Barbed wire fence
2. Improved barbed-wire fence (1962-1965)
3. Concrete wall (1965-1975)
4. Grenzmauer 75 (1975-1989)
How the Berlin Wall was constructed
5000
people successfully escaped to West Berlin
136
people died or were killed attempting to cross the Berlin Wall
Conrad Schumann was first E. German guard to
defect
to W. Germany (1961)
Gunter Litfin was first person to be shot attempting to cross Berlin Wall (1961)
Conrad Schumann was the first E. German Guard to defect to W. Germany (1961)
All he had to do was jump some barbed-wire
Here Gunter Litfin is memorialized for having been the first person to be shot at the Berlin Wall
"Here lies the first victim of the Wall and to commemorate all the victims of the Wall"
Successful Escape Attempts
Jumping out of
apartment windows
Jumping over
barbed-wire fence
Smashing
into the Wall with vehicles
Using
hot-air balloons
and ultra-light
aircraft
Digging
tunnels
Who built the Berlin Wall?
After WWII
Germany
was divided between the Soviets and the Allies
Soviets =
East
Germany
Allies =
West
Germany

Berlin
was also divided between the Soviets and the Allies
East
Berlin = Soviets
West
Berlin = Allies
Early on, people successfully
defected
to W. Germany by jumping out of apartments on the border line.

On 22 August 1961,
Ida Siekmann
was the first casualty at the Berlin Wall: she died after she jumped out of her third floor apartment.

E. Germany no longer allowed apartments near the Wall to be
occupied
and had their windows bricked up.
Early crossing through barbed-wire fence
Smashing vehicles into the Wall
Wolfgang Engels, a
19-year-old
, stole a Soviet armored personnel carrier and drove it right into the wall.
He was
fired at
and seriously wounded by border guards.
A West German policeman
intervened
, firing his weapon at the East German border guards.
The policeman removed
Engels
from the vehicle which had become
entangled
in barbed-wire
On September 16, 1979 the Strelzyk and Wetzel families
escaped
from East Germany to West Germany in a
homemade hot air balloon
during the days of the Berlin Wall.
Emigration
to West Germany was strictly
prohibited
by the East German government.
Digging
tunnels
was another way to escape.

The sewers
predated
the Wall and many people escaped in the early days through the
sewers
.
East Germany closes border with West Germany
1952
Stalin
closes border between E. Germany and W. Germany
A barbed-wire fence is put up on the border to stop
emigration
The
Berlin Loophole
:
Berlin's border between East and West was still open
Emigres would board a train in W. Berlin to emigrate from E. Berlin
Who was leaving East Germany?
East Germany experiences a "
Brain Drain
"
Emigrants tended to be young and
well educated
East Germany had only 61% of its population of working age, compared to 70.5% before the war.
Engineers
, technicians, physicians,
teachers
, lawyers and
skilled workers
all fled E. Germany for W. Germany
By 1961,
3.5 million

East Germans had left
, or 20% of the entire East German population.
The Soviets claim the Wall is to keep Westerners out but really the Wall is to keep E. Germans in E. Germany
The Soviets want total control of all of Berlin
Tried in 1948 to blockade Berlin, resulted in
Berlin airlift
By building the Wall, the Soviets were attempting to
stop emigration
from E. Germany and
keep control
of what they had
The Fall of the Berlin Wall
Pop Culture
The
culture
of the West proved too
alluring
for most E. German youth who longed for the
freedoms
of the West.
Other Countries started to open their borders to E. German citizens
E. Germans started to emigrate through Czechoslovakia and
Austria

Czechoslovakia
shared a border with E. Germany and W. Germany
E. Germans left in large numbers
Politics
"Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"
November 9, 1989 the Berlin Wall falls
E. Germany wasn't able to
enforce
the borders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, or Austria making the Wall useless
After an announcement made by the West that the East was
planning
on opening the Wall, thousands of people came to the wall
demanding
it be opened
The guards were ordered to open the Wall and on
November 9, 1989
thousands of East Berliners crossed the Wall and into West Berlin.
Der Mauer - The Wall
Why did they build it?
Crossing The Wall
Vocabulary
Soviets
: The people and especially the political and military leaders of the former U.S.S.R.
Allies
: The allied countries of WWII: France, Britain, USA, and USSR.
Immigration
: The movement of people in to a country or region.
Emigration
: The movement of people out of a country or region.
Berlin Loophole
: The ability to escape East Germany by going through West Berlin.
Brain drain
: Occurs when the people emigrating from a country are the well-educated profesionals
Defect
: to leave a country, political party, organization, etc., and go to a different one that is a competitor or an enemy
Occupy
: to live in (a house, apartment, etc.)
Intervene
: to become involved in something (such as a conflict) in order to have an influence on what happens
Alluring
: to entice by charm or attraction
Enforce
: to make (a law, rule, etc.) active or effective : to make sure that people do what is required by (a law, rule, etc.)
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