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Religion Project

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Jenna Nash

on 30 September 2016

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Transcript of Religion Project

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Abrahamic Religions
Judaism
Basics
Abraham had a wife who couldnt bare any children so Abraham had a son with his maid and named the son Ishmael. When his wife sarah saw this she begged god to give her a child, he did and they named the child Issac.
Judaism was the first monotheistic religion. Abraham was the first person to realize and teach that there was only one god. God asks abraham to leave his home and he did as he was told. Later, he was asked to sacrifice his son Issac, but at the last moment he was saved by a ram. The completion of these tasks shows the complete trust in a single god.
There are 13.1 million followers of Judaism
The sacred text of the Jews is the Torah
The place of worship is called a Synagauge
Religous leaders are called Rabbis
Mechanics
Praying- Jews pray three times a day and are supposed to say a blessing over everything they eat. There are three types of prayers: prayers of thanks, prayers of praise, and prayers that ask for things. A lot of praying consists of reciting written prayers at a Synagauge. The Jewish prayer book is called the Siddar.
The Synagogue- The Synagoue is also known as a temple or Shool. In the Synagague men and women are separated.
Important People
Abraham
Abraham is known as the first jew. He is also the first person to believe in a single god.
Joseph
Joseph was one of twelve sons of a wealthy man. His father favored him,which made his brothers jealous. His brothers sold him into slavery and faked his death to their father. While he was a slave he was put into prison for refusal. When the pharaoh had strange dreams, Joseph was called on to interpret them. He told the pharaoh that there were going to be seven years of fertility and seven years of famine. Because of this, the pharaoh was very thankful and made Joseph the Prime Minister. Joseph helped make decisions during the famine.
Moses
In 1300 BCE, Jews were working as slaves in Egypt. Moses helped lead them out of slavery and brought them to Mnt. Saini, Egypt(or the holy land they were promised). When they arrived, God renewed a deal he had made with Abraham. Moses, then received the torah, which was a set of rules for the Jews to live by.
Joshua
Joshua is the Bible's most famous warrior. He won the battle of Jericho, not by force, but by faith. Joshua believed that the land of Jericho was promised to Abraham and his decedents wanted to get it back for the Israelites. He marched his men around the walls of the city of Jericho once a day, for 6 days with priests blowing trumpets. On the seventh day, the walls collapsed. Joshua and his armies conqured the city and claimed it for the Israelites.
David
The people of Isreal were afraid of their enemy's opponent Goliath, who no one could defeat. David, who was a shepherd at the time, offered to fight Goliath by himself. First, David stunned Goliath with a rock from his sling and then cut Goliath's head off. This showed the people of Isreal how you could triumph against all odds with faith in god. Later, David becomes the first king of Jerusilum.
Geographic Spread
Jews are mostly clustered in the US, Europe and Israel.
The population of Jews in Europe used to be much greater, but it decreased majorly after the Holocaust and the creation of the Jewish State of Israel.
Timeline
1800BCE
Abraham creates Judaism
1300BCE
Moses leads Jews out of Egypt; Torah Recieved at Mnt Sinai
1000BCE
David becomes king
950BCE
The first temple is built in Jerualem
722BCE
The first temple is destroyed
0
Jesus's Birth
Religions
1250BCE
The Exodus
1492-1567CE
Jews expelled from Spain; invited to Poland
1654CE
Jews arrive in America
1933CE
Hitler comes to power; 6 million jews murdered in the Holocaust
1948CE
Creation of the State of Isreal
Interactions With Other Religions
Christianity
Basics
Mechanics
People
Geographic Spread
Timeline
Interactions with other Religions
Islam
Basics
Mechanics
People
Geographic Spread
Timeline
Interaction with other religions
Hinduism
Basics
Mechanics
People
Geographic Spread
Timeline
Interactions with other religions
Buddism
Basics
People
Timeline
Mechanics
Geographic Spread
Interactions with other religions
Confucianism
Basics
People
Timeline
Mechanics
Geograpic Spread
Interactions with other religions
By: Jenna Nash
Charles Wesley
Charles Welsey is one of the founding fathers of the Methodist denomination of Christianity. His mother gave him an early education and he was later given a scholarship, along with his brother John, to a school in London. When John returned from London he formed a club called the Holy Club and they performed charity work. A few people called the group the "Methodist" because of their methodical ways. His brother John began to formulate the base of the religion stating that Christians should strive to become better Christians and there is salvation for all. They believed they should take the word of god to the streets and not just to the churches. Charles later went through a stage of spiritual depression and he was inspired to write many beautiful hymns and poems.
Buddah
The Dalai Lama
Thich Nhat Hanh
The Dalai Lama is the head Tibetan monk. There has been a total of 14 Dalai Lamas in the histroy of buddhism . Buddhist believe that the Dalai Lama is someone who decides to be reborn in order to continue his work as a priest. The first person they believe to have done this is Gedun Drub. The current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso. When the Dalai lama dies the high lamas meet and find who they think the new reincarnation is. This can take anywhere from two to four years. The high lamas look for signs on where to look for the reincarnation in dreams and in a lake. When they think they found the next Dalai lama they present him with numerous toys if the boy picks one of the old Dalai lamas toys then they are the next Dalai Lama.
Christianity is the world's largest religion
There are about 2.1 billion followers worldwide
Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ
Christians believe that Jesus is the son of God and he is the messiah promised in the old testament
One important fact of Christianity, is that Jesus was crucified on the cross and rose on the third day after his death
Christians worship in churches
The holy book is called the Bible
Chrisitan holidays include Christmas and Easter
3500BCE
Noah's Ark and Great flood
Undated
Creation of the man
4CE
Jesus Born
30CE
Jesus Crucifixion and Resurection
70CE
Fall of Jeruselum
1300BCE
Moses leads Hebrews out of slavery
99CE
New Testament finished
312CE
Roman Empire Accepts Chrstianity
1095CE
Pope calls for Crucade against Muslims
1517BCE
Martin Luther begins reformation (Lutheranism created- aka a Protestant)
1738BCE
John Wesley begins Methodism
Christianity is an important religion in the history of many countries. You can find many Christians in Eastern Europe. You can also find many Christians is South America because of conquest and missionaries spreading the religion to the new world sometimes by force. There are also may Christians in S,outh Africa also the result of conquest and missionaries. Chrisitanity is also the main religion found in North America.
The religious practices vary between each denomination, each church, and each Chrisitan. Most Christians regularly attend a service every Sunday at a church. When at church, people sing, pray, and listen to a sermon. The holy book of the Chrisitan's is the Bible, which consists of the Old Testament(which Jews also find holy) and the New Testament. Christians are usually baptized (as an adult or infant) which is basicly the pouring of water on the head symbolizing being washed from sins or purification. Christians also participate in communion which is the sharing of bread and wine which symbolizes Jesus's body so christians can remember what he did for them.
The lords prayer is prayer commonly said by many chrisitans.
The followers of the Islam religion are called Muslims
Islam is the second largest religion worldwide
There are over 1 billion followers
The muslim God is Allah
Muslims believe that the first prophet was Muhammad
The holy book of the Muslims is the Qur'an
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. Stating that there is only one God and that God is Allah
2. Praying 5 times a day torwards Mecca
3. Giving to charity
4. Going on a pilgrimage(or Hajj) to Mecca
5. Fasting during the month of Ramadan
Abraham
Muhammad
The Islam Creation story: Muhammad lived in Mecca and one day while he was outside the Angel of Gabrielle came to him and told him to proclaim in the name of the lord who created. Muhammad then began to preach what he was told by the angel. Because Muhammad's teachings threatend the Meccan way of life, he was persecuted. Muhammaed made an escape from Mecca to Medina(this journey is called a hijrah).
After Muhammad's death, his followers compiled his teachings into a book creating the Quran. All followers of the Muslim faith follow to The Five Pillars of Islam. The main "teacher" of the Islam religion is the Caliph. There are two main sects of the Islam religion: Sunni and Shiite. The Shiite Muslims believe that the Caliph must be a direct descendent of Muhammed, while the Sunnis are less strict about who the elected Caliph is. One of The Five Pillars of Islam, states that followers must take a Hajj to Mecca when they arrive Muslims go to the Kaaba(which is a cubed-shaped box contianing a holy black stone).
Followers of the Islam religion can be found throughtout the world, but they are mostly clustered in the Middle East in North Africa. There are over fifty countries with Muslim majorities.
570CE
Birth of Muhammad
610CE
Muhammad Recieves vision of Angel of Gabriele
610-622CE
Muhammad preaches then make Hijraj to Medina
632CE
Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as Caliph
765CE
The division of the Sunnis and Shiites
1990sCE
Taliban came to power
2001CE
Muslim Extremist attack the US
(9/11)
655CE
Islam spreads through North Africa
There is no known founder or no known founding date for Hinduism
Hindus worship one or more dieties or gods
In Hinduism there is a belief in reincarntation
Hindusim originated in the Indus River Valley
Hindus believe in Karma or every action has a reaction
The holy books of Hinduism are The Vedas
Hindus celebrate many holidays which include The Festival of Lights and Diwali
About 900 million people follow Hinduism
Hinduism is the oldest existing religion
The caste system is sometimes classified as part of Hinduism
Hinduism is mainly clustered on the Indian sub-continent, but you can also find Hindus in Guyana and Suriname, parts of the middle east, North america, the UK, and scattered throughout islands in the Indian Ocean.
2800-2000BCE
Indus River Valley civilization
1200-900BCE
The early Vedas are written
800-300BCE
The Upnishads are written (Karma and Reincarnation created
900-600BCE
Late Vedic Period- Brahmanical religion develops
5th Century BCE
Buddhism and Janism founded in India
1700CE
The British India Company formed
1720CE
British Take Control
1876CE
Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India
1895CE
Hinduism Promoted as a World Religion
1915-1947CE
Ghandi joins movement to make India Idependent & India gains idependence
1947CE
Independance of India causes conflict between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs
Siddharta Gautama
Buddhism is 2,500 years old
Buddhism arose as a result of Siddhartha Gautama's quest for Enlightenment in around the 6th Century BC
There are 360 Million Followers of Buddhism
The two main denominations of Buddhism are Theravada and Mahayana
Buddist Worship at home and at a temple
The ultimate goal of all Buddhist is Elightenment
Today there are very few people who worship Buddism in its birthplace of India. Most Buddhist are clustered in China, Japan, and America
480BCE
Buddah Born
450BCE
Buddahs enlightment
405BCE
Buddahs death
300BCE
Buddhism arrives in SE Asia
In general, Jews try to stay out of other religions way. They only have had government power twice; Once in Israel in the Bibical times and once in modern day Israel. Jews do not have the same luck with other religions. When most of the Jews were located in Egypt, a long time ago, they were persecuted for believeing in a single god. Today, they are still persecuted by other religions; examples of this being the Holocaust (6 million jews were murdered) and the modern day war in Israel.
Chrisitians share roots with many other religions, but they are not always open to the other religion's views. Being the second of the three Abrahamic religions, it shares some of the same texts as Judaism, but they do not always get along. One example of this is when the Christians countries in Europe killed over 6 million innocent Jews. Chrisitans also do not get along very well with Muslims. An example of this being 9/11 when Muslim terrorists attacked the United States. Christians are pretty tolerant when it comes to other religions.
Al Queda/Osama bin Laden
The religous practices of Hindus are usually focused on the devotion to a God or many gods. These practices usually involve worshiping religious statues or portirats of gods in home shrines. Some Hindus also try to reach a state of "realization" called Brahman, through intense meditation. Hindus also may try to complete moral or social duties due to their social caste. There are three paths that Hindus can take to liberation: Bhaktimarga(the path of devotion), Jnanamarga(the path of knowledge or philosophy), and Karmamarga(the path of works and action). The religious practices that Hindus par-take in are duties associated both with one's social position and one's stage of life. Hindu worship is mainly individual because it involves personal offerings to gods and each individual's personal preference of how to worship. Hindu rituals are usally perfomed about three times a day. Pilgrimages are often made to the Ganges River, which is said to have holy waters for Hindus.
Hindus are a relatively peaceful religion, being the most adaptable religions. This may be because of the many ways they can worship. Hindus occasionally disagee with the Buddhist over land. An example would be the fight over when India got its independence and which land would go to the Hindus and which would go to the Buddhist, this resulted of the creation of the countries of Pakistan and India.
Buddhist can worship both at home and at a temple . Much like Hindus, Buddhist often build shrines, but they worship Buddah istead of the other gods. There are many temples of the Buddhist, some examples would be the Pogodas in China or Stupas which contain relics of Buddah. The religious text of Buddhism is the Sutra. Each sutra contains the work of one of Buddah's deciples. One thing that many Buddhist like to create are called mandalas which are colored sands that symbolized an imaginary palace that is contemplated during meditation. Buddhist also believe that they must accept the four major truths. Karma which is mentioned in the Hindu religion is also an important part of Buddhism.
Chinese Pogoda
The Four Noble Truths
Mandala
522CE
Buddhism enters Korea
700CE
Buddhism becomes offical religion of Japan
1100CE
Buddhism becomes virtually extinct in India
741CE
Buddhist temple ordered to be built in every Japanese province
1949CE
Buddhism suppressed by Chinese com. Gov.
1239-1251CE
Mongols invade Korea & destroy Buddhist scriptures.
Confucianism is based on the teachings of Confucius.
Confucianism is sometimes veiwed as a religion and sometimes viewed as a philosophy.
Confucianism has been big in China for over 2 thousand years
There are about 5-6 million followers of Confucionism
Many of the dynasties in chinese history have ruled on confucian pholosphies
The main texts of Confucionism are the Analects
There are no specific practices or rituals performed by Confucianists; followers of Confucionism usually worship in their own way or follow the rituals from other religions. The main principles that Confucianist follow are benevolence, loyalty to ones own nature, ritual norms, reciprocity, and respect for ones parents and ancestors. Confucianism is characterized by a highly optmistic view of human nature.
551BCE
Confucius Born
479BCE
Confucius Death
221-206BCE
Qin Emporer burns Confucian books and kills Confucian scholars
296BCE- 220CE
Han Dynasty honors Confucianism
500'sCE
Confucianism Introduced to Japan
1100CE
Neo-Confucainism Introduced to Japan
Muslims view themselves as having supremacy over all other religions. There are even restrictions on who a Muslim can and cannot marry; a Muslim man can marry a Jewish or Christian woman, but Muslim women are only allowed to marry a mMuslim man. Muslims believe in some aspects that the Christians and Jews believe, but they believe that their interpratations are corrupt. Muslims often get in debacles with other religions because they believe that their religion is the final religion and is the best.
Bhuddah and the Dhali Lama taught that it is a great thing that there are so many religions. They stated that, "just as some people like some foods and dont like others, one set of beliefes will not satisfy all. Buddhist have respect for other religions but there are always going to be differences in coflicts because of different beliefes, but there are very few conflicts between buddist.
Today most confucist are located in China or Japan. Many modern communities are influnced by Cofucits ideas and beliefes. In the Han dynasty the emporers ruled on the pholosipys of Confucionism.
Adam and Eve
Noah
Abraham
Moses
Mary
Jesus
Adam and Eve are known in The Bible as the first people to inhabit the Earth. They lived in the Garden of Eden. One day, a serpent offered Eve an apple from the only tree God instructed them not to eat from; Eve ate the apple which brought evil to the world
As the population of the world grew, the world became filled more and more with evil and God wanted to get rid of all the bad in the world, so he instructed one of his followers, Noah, to build an ark. Noah followed God's command and built an ark. He filled the ark with two of every animal on earth and when the final animal got on the ark it began to rain. God flooded the earth and it rained for fourty days and fourty nights. When the rain subsided, Noah and the animals job was to repopulate the earth with good instead of evil.
Mary is the mother of Jesus. One day, while mary was at her house, an angel came to her and told her that she was going to have a child and God was the father and her son will be the Messiah.
When Moses was a baby, the Pharoe ordered all baby boys in Egypt to be executed, so Moses's mom saved his life by sending him down the Nile River in a basket. The Pharoe's wife saved Moses and raised him. When he grew up, he killed a man because he was beating one of his slaves, so Moses ran away. One day, God commanded him to go back to Egypt and free the Irisalites from slavery, and with Gods help he did.
Jesus was born to Mary in Bethleham and was told that he was the Messiah. He began to preach about the glory of God and started a religious movement. The Roman empire did not approve of this religious movement and ordered for Jesus to be crucified on the cross. Jesus said that he was dying on the cross to forgive all sin. Three days after Jesus's death, his tomb was found empty because he had risen again. The holiday celebrating this resurection is Easter.
Three of the world's major religions trace their roots to Abraham: Chrisitanity, Judaism, and Islam. Abraham was commanded by God to leave his home in Mesopotamia and venture to a place God called "The Promise Land," God, in return promised to make his ancestors rule a great nation. Abraham did everything God asked him to do, including sacrifice his own son(which was stopped before he could kill him).
Angel of Gabriel
The Angel of Gabriel came to Muhammad and told him all of the scriptures that make up the Quran. He also ordered Muhammed to have scribes write down all the stories
Muhammad was the person that the Angel of Gabriel game to to reveal the text of the Quaran. When this text was revealed to him, he went home to his friends and family to preach about what the Angel told him. When he started to preach to the community, the Government in Mecca felt like what Muhammad was saying was threating to their government, so they sent to take him to jail, but Muhammad heard that they were looking for him before they got to him, so he escaped to Medina. When he was in Medina, he gained a huge following and got more messages from Allah(the Islam god) and the Angel of Gabriel.
Osama bin Laden was a Muslim extremist who lead the group Al Queda. Al Queda believe that America was an evil place and that all Americans should die, so they organized the attack on 9/11. On September 11, 2001 two planes were flown into the World Trade Center and a third was flown into the Pentagon. There are many other attacks that have been initated before and after 9/11 that have been very devastating.
Abraham had two sons Issac and Ishmael. When Abraham's wife Sarah was blessed with Issac she demanded that Abraham send Ishmael and his maid Hagar away. Many of the rituals of Islam are derived from events that occurred between Ishamael and Abraham and Abraham and Hagar. An example of this being the Hajj. When Hagar was looking for water he crossed between two hills to get the water. The hajj is symbolic of this crossing the two mountians to get water and even honors the work that Hagar had to do.
Sri Krishna
Sri Krishna was part human and part god. He was one of eight children born in prision. He was smuggled out and raised by foster parents. As a child, he was said to be very mischievous, but he did kill two demons as a child and save his village numerous times. While at war, his friend Prince Arjuna seeked his counsel. It was then, that Sri Krishna gave a sacred speech to the Hindus that is used today in worship.
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda was a direct decendant of Sri Ramakrishna. Swami helped spread Hinduism to the west. He gave a speech regarding the intergration of world religions at the World Religions meeting in 1893. He advocated emancipation for Indian women and helped to stop some of the bad parts of the Caste system.
Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi is a political leader that fought for independence in India. He did not want to fight using violence, so instead he used peaceful protest to get the attention of the British government. He was assasinated in 1948 after India got independence
Shiva, Lakshmi, & Vishnu
Shiva was the god of self control, death and dissulution. He is known as one of the most powerful gods. Lakshmi is the goddess of wealth and purity. She was one of the most popular gods. Vishnu is the god of creation, upkeep and destruction of the world.
Siddhartha Gautama was an Indian prince in the 6th century. To keep SIddhartha from the troubles of the world his father kept him locked in the palace. One day, he was feeling curious and went outside the palace. When he went outside the palace, he saw an old man(he didnt know people grew old), he saw a sick man, a corpse, and a poor man. He was completely supprised that there were people that experienced these evils and he decided that he wanted to do something about it. So Siddartha stepped down from being the prince and went into the forest and fasted and meditated. Then, one day, he determined the best way to live is to declare oneself seperate from material items and to live with one's flesh instead of objects. Siddartha then became the Buddah and dedicated the rest of his life to teaching others to live without physical items.
Ananda
Ananda was Buddha's cousin and one of his primary disciples. He memorized and recited the Buddha's teachings, and was known as the Dhammabhandagarika, or "treasurer of the teachings."
Hanh was a very well known spiritual leader, peace activist, and poet. He is the best known Buddhist teacher. Thich Nhat Hanh lead many peace movements, built schools and helped those and need, and Martin Luther King nominated him for a Nobel Peace Prize.
Confucius
Confucious, also known as Kong Qui, was born in the village of Tou, China. Little is known about Confucious's childhood, but most historians believe that Conucious was born durring the period of warring states. Because Chinese war was deterorating at the time, Confucious seized the oppertunity and went to the governement with his pholosipies. One of his pholoshies is the well known "Golden Rule" that states that you should treat others the way you want to be treated. Confucious's politcal beliefes were based on self-discipline. When he died he was convinced that his works would make a difference, and As of the fourth century B.C., Confucius was regarded as a sage who had deserved greater recognition in his time. By the second century B.C., during China’s first Han Dynasty, his ideas became the foundation of the state ideology. Today he is widely considered one of the most influential teachers in Chinese history
Confucianism is not seen as only a religion, but also as a political system which makes it different from different religions. Other religions do not really have conflicting views with the confucists because confucists do not worship a god so other religons can not argue about them worshiping the wrong god.
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