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Food Supply systems - CASE STUDY map

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by

Robert Gamesby

on 22 February 2016

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Transcript of Food Supply systems - CASE STUDY map

Food Supply systems - CASE STUDY map
Northern Kenya - Nomadic Herders
Type - PASTORAL SUBSISTENCE & EXTENSIVE
Climate is too extreme for settled farming
Movement based on aridity and access to water
TOTAL nomads have no permanent base
Semi Nomads have a base but travel big distances
Northern Kenya is a great example - rainfall is too low and unreliable to allow settled agriculture - 300mm a year in parts
The Rendille people use camels, goats and cattle - these animals need water and grass
The Rendille follow the rains and hence new grass growth
Camels are used a pack animals
Animals are also used for blood and milk as a food source
Under pressure from population growth, climate change, out migration and desertification and soil erosion
Amazon Basin - Shifting cultivation
Extensive subsistence agriculture
Farmers move from plot to plot of land - they clear an area of vegetation, farm the area, exhaust the soil and then move on, allowing the soils to recover
Technology limited but the few workers have to work INTENSIVELY
Outputs low, only enough to feed immediate family
Exists in tropical forest but is less common due to forest clearance
Amazon Basin
Amerindians clear 1Ha with stone axes & machetes
Largest trees often left to offer shade to young crops
Felled vegetation is left to dry then burned - "Slash and burn"
Burning - removes weeds, ash for fertiliser BUT destroys bacteria & organic material
Crops - manioc, Yams, pumpkins, beans, tobacco.
Hunting supplements diet - fish, fruit, monkeys, tapirs
Nutrient cycle is broken by Slash and Burn - nutrients not replaced after being lost to leaching and erosion so farmers are FORCED to move on after 4 to 5 years
Under threat as Amazon forest cleared for mining, roads, HEP, agriculture

Ganges Valley -
Intensive Subsistence agriculture - ARABLE

How has farming in the Ganges valley been affected by the Green revolution?
The Pampas, South America
Extensive commercial Pastoralism
TYPE - EXTENSIVE COMMERCIAL PASTORAL
Livestock ranching - lowest net profit per hectare
Therefore done in remote areas with poorer soils
Land is needed for sufficient grasses for animals to graze, found in areas of low population density
Aims to give maximum output from minimum inputs - i.e. low levels of capital compared to size of farm.
Examples - sheep farming in upland England (e.g. Cheviots), cattle in North American Mid west and the Pampas
Winter feed often required, so some grain farming exists alongside
Environment can suffer - high amounts of Methane are produced, desertification can happen together with soil erosion, large parts of rainforest cleared for cattle ranches
7grams of grain go into 1gram of meat - so land intensive in other ways
The Pampas cover Uruguay and Northern Argentina
500mm to 1200mm of Precipitation a year, getting drier to NW - supports TEMPERATE grasslands
Warmer summer - water supplies supplemented by groundwater
Winter - grasses die back
Temperatures never too high in summer to kill off grass or too low to totally prevent its growth
Relief is flat with rich alluvial soils from rivers (e.g. Parana
Grasses die and rot providing Humus to aid soil fertility
Ranches are HUGE - many over 100km squared
Privately owned
Alfalfa is grown as a winter feed
Cattle are from old European stock - Hereford cattle brought from Britain crossed with Asian Brahmin bulls to cope with warm dry conditions
Hides, canned produce and now with refrigeration meat are the OUTPUTS
TYPE - EXTENSIVE COMMERCIAL ARABLE
Wheat is the major crop - ripens well on long sunny summer days
Winter frosts help break up the soil
Growing season short - Northern areas fall below 90 days minimum requirement
Precipitation is low, only 500mm and hail can ruin crop
Winter snows can insulate ground and give moisture during spring melts
Chinook wind melts snow in spring & extends growing season
Relief is UNDULATING so good for MECHANISATION
Black fertile Chernozem soils
European settlers grew cereals in response to price rises and demand in Europe in 1860s
Railroads linked grain growing regions to eastern ports
Land was divided into square miles portions
High capital input has meant high levels of mechanisation e.g. combined harvesters
Fertilisers and pesticides used.
Canola, barley and sugar beet also grown
The Canadian Prairies
Western Netherlands
Intensive Commercial MIXED farming
Dairying, fruit and market gardening all compete to be closest to markets as products perish
Plus these good shave high transport costs as are perishable, bulky, heavy and in daily demand
Most of Western Netherlands is 2 to 6m below sea level and recovered from the sea using Polders
Excess water is pumped into canals (originally done by windmills)
Dairying - intensive use North of Amsterdam - grasses are lush enough for Fresian cattle. Most is used in cheeses and cattle are milked by computerised systems
Land between The Hague and Rotterdam used for horticulture. Glasshouses used on small plots of 1 ha. High production costs using oil and gas heating in glasshouses and sprinklers for water
Plants grown under black plastic which absorbs and retains heat. Several crops a year - cucumbers, tomatoes, lettuce, flowers
Sandier soils used to grow bulbs

Plantation agriculture in Malaysia - covered later
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