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Spray On Skin

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Wendy Ma

on 31 July 2014

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Transcript of Spray On Skin

Is it successful?
Fiona Wood's spray on skin technique has been far more successful than previous attempts and treatments available. It reduces healing time and scaring in a short period. This technique is extensively used worldwide. Although it is slightly more painful it is only temporary and the risk of infection is reduced.
For many patients/victims with severe burns or other injuries other alternatives such as skin grafting are not possible. This is because they do not have enough healthy skin left due to the damage or cannot stand the surgery to contain the skin.
As the name suggests, the application involves practically spraying some laboratory grown skin cells directly onto the affected skin area through the use of a spray tool, creating a thin coat of skin that will help heal and regenerate the skin. Patients who can benefit most from the spray-on skin are those who have severe and dramatic skin damage covering more than 40% of the skin's body.

Advantages and Disadvantages
The disadvantage to spray on skin is:
The latter option of a donor is a risk since the skin is not from the same person, there is a risk of infection or rejection.
The downside is that spray on skin does not have the sweat glands and hair follicles of real skin.
Another disadvantage is not every will be able to get a small patch of skin off their body or so that is why a donor is possible.
What is it?
Skin is the human body’s largest organ. It is essential for everyday life and for the sense of touch. It is the protects the body both externally and internally such as from disease and physical damage. It also helps control the body temperature and is made up of two major layers, The epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is the outer layer and the dermis contains tissue fibers to nurture and back up the epidermis.

Artificial skin is a product, which can be used for temporary or permanent replacement of severely damaged skin caused from several events such as burns. Doctors usually use this product on burn victims.
When the skin has been severely damaged through disease or burns, the body can't act quick enough to replace cells. Burn victims can die from infection and loss of plasma.

Spray on skin is a device and procedure used for the treatment of a wide range of wounds, burns, scars and skin defects. The technology takes advantage of the regeneration capability of skin, allowing a surgeon to collect a very small sample of the patient's own skin and to re-apply these skin cells, using a gentle spray, to ensure quick healing, and the return of proper texture and pigmentation to an area that has been burned or scarred.
Using a small sample of the patients own skin allows the doctor to produce a suspension of skin cells that includes all of the cells necessary to allow healthy skin growth. The cell suspension, is then sprayed onto the affected area to be treated and to let time for it to heal. This contains the appropriate mix of healthy cells of different types to promote healing (keratinocytes), skin structure (fibroblasts) and cells that help reproduce the normal skin colour (melanocytes) in areas where the pigmentation has become too dark or white due to injury, scars or disease.

Spray On Skin
What sore of wound can be treated?
The types of wounds that can be treated is:
•-Treatment of partial thickness skin defects, including burns and scalds.
•-Scar reconstruction and other skin defects.
•-Treatment of epidermal defects such as discolouration of the skin
•-Treatment to prevent possible side effects of cosmetic laser surgery.
•-Treatment of the donor site.
Why is it necessary to speed the healing process?
Research has shown and proven the need to speed up the healing process in order to prevent the formation of infection and scars. The healing time is the single most important factor in the formation of significant scars.
What is so special about spray on skin?
Spray on skin is unique. It uses the regenerative capabilities of your own cells to accelerate healing, reduce scaring risk and improve skin texture and colour. It doesn't require sophisticated and advanced instruments and tools, the surgeon can prepare the cell suspension at the bed side in a short period around about 30 minutes. Only a very small skin sample is needed and no adverse event specific to spray on skin are to be anticipated as your own cells are being used.
How long will Spray on skin last?
Post surgery, the treated area will change and develop over a period of weeks and months. The pigmentation (skin colour) and surface scarring will continue to mature and improve over the next 3-6 months. The final result of the spray on skin treatment is permanent.
What could go wrong?
As with any surgery, there are risks associated with spray on skin surgery.
For example, you may have a negative reaction to the anesthethic or you may get an infection, undergoing more surgery or getting scars than before. It is important that you discuss all possible outcomes with your surgeon before going through with any operation so that you are prepared of all side effects and complications.
Who is not suitable?
Spray on skin should not be used on an already infected wound. Patients with a known allergy to anesthesia or the enzyme should not be treated. It is also important that the patient is willing to follow with the post surgery instructions to avoid the risk of complications and side effects.

The development of the spray-on skin was made due to Dr. Fiona Wood and Marie Stoner, a plastic surgeon and a medical scientist, respectively. In the 1980s, Dr. Wood observed and gave her her inspiration on her invention in an English research center how skin samples could be extracted from patients and developed in laboratories to become “skin cell sheets,” prompting her to develop and create a newer and more effective technique. In 1993, Dr. Wood and Ms. Stoner were given a Telethon grant to begin their skin culture and research program. On one occasion, both of them observed that a thinner and underdeveloped skin sheet was a more effective treatment than a mature one, and then this was experimented by creating a spray on skin formula using the cells from the immature skin cell sheet by using the victims own skin.

Fiona Wood
Spray tools
The invention of spray on skin was made from 1990-1993. Fiona Wood focused her research on improving established techniques of skin repair. With this invention she saved 28 lives in the 2002 Bali bombing.
Donors and other possibilities
Usually, loss of skin will be dealt with by use of a skin graph from either another part of the body on the same person, or from another person or a donor. The disadvantage of this option is that since the skin is not from the own victim, there is a risk of infection or rejection of the skin.
There has been a recent development in this area that has introduced an artificial skin made with materials that allow it to sense touch. This would be especially useful in robot prosthetic where they will be able to judge how strong a grip is which is useful and necessary due to the circumstances.
MIT has also been successful in using artificial skin to treat burn patients who aren't always able to receive a skin graph from another part of the body. The artificial skin allows for a quick and obvious reduction in scaring and also grows along with the body, which is especially important for children as a developing young human.

Different types of skin:
Standard Procedure
The standard procedure for intense burns is to eliminate the damaged skin and replace it as immediately as possible. However for the people who get burnt more than 50% over their body has fatal and fragile skin. This is where artificial skin helps. The procedure is incredibly quick and simple. The procedure usually occurs in an operating theatre under anesthesia, although, depending on the condition being treated, for example, a region of skin discolouration on the face. The option of local anesthetic can be discussed with your doctor.

A small sample of skin (biopsy) is collected from an area close to the skin region to be treated; this ensures that, as the new skin regrows, the treated area has the same colour and texture as the surrounding skin. The sample of skin is a 1 - 2 centimetre square area (approximately the size and thickness of a postage stamp) which is also treated with the spray to help it heal rapidly.

While the surgeon is preparing the area to be treated, the skin will be placed into the spray on skin kit. The spray on skin kit separates, isolates and regenerates the patient's skin cells. The suspension of healthy, activated cells is then sprayed onto the wound area or region of skin to be treated. Once sprayed onto the affected area, the patient's healthy cells enter a phase where rapid growth and improvement of the affected area is noticeable so that 'new' skin matches the surrounding tissue in texture and colour. This allows the regeneration of an entirely new sheet of thin healthy and unblemished skin which is rapidly grown over the wound using the patient's own skin cells. Following the procedure, the treated area will be covered with a special dressing and must be protected from direct sun and physical impact for a period of approximately 5-7 day, depending on the reason for treatment. After this period the dressing will be removed by your doctor or clinic nurse. Your doctor will give you advice about what creams you are allowed to use, how much you can expose the treated area to the sun and what you should expect after the procedure.

Fiona Wood's spray on skin technique involves taking a small amount of healthy and unaffected skin from the victim and using it to grow new healthy skin cells in a laboratory. The newly grown and developed cells are then sprayed onto the patient’s damaged skin area to rapidly heal the burn and damage taken.
How it works?
There are a number of different types of artificial skin but what is mainly used are sheets of human skin grown from the patients own cells which are designed to act as a support so that the body can grow its own skin as their burn heals.
A skin graft is a patch of skin that is removed by surgery from one area of the body and attached to another area.
How is spray on skin beneficial?
With other skin repair techniques, 21 days were needed to grow enough cells to cover extensive burns. But with using Fiona's spray-on skin product and invention this lowered the amount of time to just 5 days or at times a few hours. Reduced healing time means reduced infections. The spray on skin also helped in burnt skin discolouration and scars to blend in with the other skin. This new technique saved many lives throughout Australia and the world. For example some Bali bombing victims in 2002.
Fiona Wood is a plastic and reconstructive surgeon specialising in burn care and scar reconstruction.
Fiona is the director of the burn service of W.A, consultant at Royal Perth Hospital and Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, the co-founder and director of AVITA Medical and co-founder (with Marie Stoner) and chair of the McComb Foundation.
Fiona goal is to research tissue repair and reconstruction with the aim of improving the paitents quality of life and return to normal condition. Dr Fiona Wood invented spray on skin that saved many lifes. She was born February 2, 1958, Hernsworth, Yorkshire, England. Working in Perth, Western Australia, Fiona is in charge of the Royal Perth Hospital burns unit

Dr Fiona Wood’s treatment is under continuous development. Through research she found that scarring is greatly reduced if skin cannot be replaced within 10 days. Wood’s goal is “scarless woundless healing”. Wood established a company called Avita Medical in 1993 to advertise and show awareness of the procedure. Her business started to strive when a schoolteacher arrived at Royal Perth Hospital in 1992 with petrol burns over 90% of his body. Woods used US advanced technology with cultured skin to save his life. Working days and nights in a laboratory along with scientist Marie Stoner. The two women continuously worked together to explore tissue engineering and growing skin sheets to spraying skin cells. She received praise from her patients and the media; she also had controversy between her other burn surgeon colleagues because spray on skin had not yet been subjected to clinical trials. Technology is currently approved for use in Australia, Europe, Mexico, Canada and China.

Bali bombings
The technique is based on research conducted by Professor Fiona Wood and Marie Stoner of the Royal Perth Hospital in Western Australia, which they used to treat burns patients from the Bali 2002 terrorist bomb attack. This was a major turning point and helped give awareness to the world about this great invention that saved 22 lives from such a major event in 2002.


One of the most important advantages of the spray-on skin:
Is that it is customized, depending on some factors such as the severity and the location of the injury, as these will determine which skin samples are needed to heal the damage. For example, if the injury is located on the face, surgeons can extract some skin from the back of the patient’s ear or from the neck area, so that the color and the structure of the skin sprayed on to the face will match closely.
Another advantage of the technology is a shorter period of laboratory work. The skin cells can be harvested in the laboratory and can be applied on the surface in as little as a few hours, compared to culturing skin sheets that can take weeks.
Recovery time is also reduced considerably, as patients do not have to deal with stitches and staples typical in skin graft procedures.
Before and after the use of spray on skin
Several Articles
Step 1
Victim gets or develops burnt, injured, a disease or a skin defect.
Step 2
Victim either gets a patch of skin off from themselves via surgery or by a donor if they can't get biopsy off a part of their own body near the wound.
Step 3
Surgeons allows the skin to develop and reactive in a laboratory for a few hours to a few days so new skin cells ready to be put in a spray tool.
Step 4
When a thin layer is spray onto the wound the wound will start to heal and generate skin slowly. Post surgery there will be some important instructions to follow to ensure development and success.
Spray on skin
Bali bombings
New, quick and life saving saved from infections
Fiona woods and marie stoner developed and created this invention
The process
from 21 days reduced to 5 days
Mind Map: Brainstorming
Improvement: Then and Now
By: Wendy Ma
Full transcript