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Fur Trade Era!
Transcript of Fur Trade Era!
1770s - 1849
The Nuu-chah-nulth meet Cook
Land Based Fur Trade
-Traders came overland from east of the Rocky Mountains
-The NWC faced financial ruin and merged with the HBC
-Blankets were the principal item traded for the furs
-First Nations would spend days negotiating a trade, or wait for a better offer
-The presence of a fort increased the local group’s status and power
-The HBC had to abandon their post if the local people didn’t want to participate in the fur trade
Maritime Fur Trade
Women in the Fur Trade
-Prepared furs, cleaned and dried the salmon
-Often married company employees
-Became bound up in social, economic and political relationships
-Suffered racial discrimination
-Built bridges between the two cultures
-Broke down some racial barriers
-Sacrificed traditional bonds with their culture
By: Cynthia & Alston
- By 1700s, Europeans had explored and colonized most of the world.
-Searching for the Northwest Passage, for easier access to the Asian market
- Juan Perez reached Haida Gwaii in 1774, where they were too wary to board the ship, but willing to trade
-Instructed to claim land that looked uninhabited in the name of the King George 3
-James Cook took the challenge to find the Northwest Passage.
-His ships "Resolution and Discovery" reached the west coast of Vancouver Island
- He spent a month with Nuu-chah-nulth, repairing his ship and trading
-Cook's descriptions about the Nuu-chah-nulth were the first written records of material culture and social life of the coastal region
Real Life Case Study
Impacts of the Fur Trade
Devastation By Disease: An Infograph
-Amount of time spent on seasonal activities changed
-Dependency on European supplies that hadn’t existed previously
-Changed traditional settlement patterns
-New trade goods
-Objects increased the status of users
-Perez left, but due to illness and weather, he stopped at Nuu-chah-nulth territory, the Nuu-chah-nulth had iron and copper, proof that their material goods had already reached BC by trade
- The northwest region of North America was one of the last areas of the world to be colonized by the Europeans
-International rivalries came to a peak in the 1770s
-200 ships came from Europe and the US to join fur trade
-Noted wealth of timber and furs
-Europeans mariners claimed sovereignty of the land in the name of the king and queen and home nation
-First Nations brought furs to the ships in their canoes
-Iron and firearms were sought after trade items
-Alcohol became commonly traded.
-The trade devastated the sea otter population
-Dwindling supplies+ HBC competition= Maritime trade decline after 1820
Captain Cook compared to
Ms. Winnifred David
Chief Gweh was an important, and one of the great leaders of the northern interior. Chief Gweh had two important confrontations with the fur traders. One incident occurred when Daniel Harmon acknowledged how frequently violence was used against the First Nations People. Chief Gweh and ten other men came into the trading post. To the trader, it seemed Chief Gweh was trying to provoke him. In frustration he smacked him for about 5 minutes. To make peace, Chief Gweh invited them to a feast.
The second incident involves James Douglas. Two Dakelh men have been accused of murder, while one Dakelh man had been secretly killed by the HBC. His family wanted revenge. Chief Gweh organized a group of men and then confronted Douglas. His nephew then threatened Douglas. Douglas' wife then tossed down blankets, clothing, and tobacco. According to the Dakelh people, this was a sign of respect. His followers quietly returned home and the case was closed.
-When he left, he took with him 1,500 sea otter pelts
Ms.Winnifred David's account was more judgmental and full of confusion. The first nations tried to make sense of the Europeans and concluded they were fish who turned into human.
-Captain Cook's journal was more friendly with still quite a bit of confusion. They appreciated what the first nations for them, and very much enjoyed the feast. They were perplexed by their customs, but none the less, cooperated with them.