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Biological Diversity 2013
Transcript of Biological Diversity 2013
Species Biological Diversity
4.17.2013 Do all introduced species become invasive? Species introductions have many ecological consequences Economic Consequences of Introduced & Invasive Species How reduce & manage species introductions? Human values complicate management of invasive species But the volume of introductions is enormous! Many places mostly invasives. The Tens Rule 1000 species imported 100 escape 10 establish 1 invader Only a fraction of introduced species become invasive Invasive species: introduced species that threaten habitats, ecosystem services, or species Puerto Rico: 90% fish species non-native
New York State: 36% plant species non-native
British Isles: 43% plant species non-native Invader success depends on ecosystem Natural Enemy Release Hypothesis Data for 120 species introduced into U.S. from Europe (Mitchell & Power 2003) Changes in ecosystem processes:
Nutrient dynamics & fire frequency Threats to native taxa Cheatgrass Worldwide Distribution of Non-Native Freshwater Fish (A) The percentage of non-native species per basin and (B) the non-native species richness per basin. Each basin was delimited by a GIS using 0.5° × 0.5° unit grid. The maps were drawn using species occurrence data for 9,968 species in 1,055 river basins covering more than 80% of continental areas worldwide. % of species introduced % of native species in IUNC threatened categories Spatial correlation of invasion & threat to extinction: areas in which more than 25% of fish species are non-native have highest rates of threat Lepriur et al. 2008 PLOS Biology Conservation Science
Karieva & Marvier 2011 European honeybee Zebra mussel House cats responsible for extinction of 33 bird species globally Dogs send 800,000 Americans to hospital every year