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The Existence of God in the Qur'an

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Halima Khansaheb

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of The Existence of God in the Qur'an

"Will they, then,- ascribe divinity, side by side with Him, unto beings that cannot create anything since they themselves are created" (Qur'an 7:192)

Fazlur Rahman

The necessity of God's existence is one of the main thematic discussions in Rahman's book, 'Major themes of the Qur'an,'
Rahman claims that the Qur’an calls belief in God "Belief in and Awareness of the Unseen" (Sura 2:3).

The Existence of God in the Qur'an
What will we be discussing?
Various Arguments For and Against the existence of God.

Our evidence for the existence of God will be inspired by various Qur'anic verses as well as the work of well established authors such as Fazlur Rahman.

Our evidence to counter the existence of god will be sourced from the work of various philosophers and sociological thinkers such as Karl Marx and strong atheists such as Richard Dawkins who firmly believe there is no God.
Arguments FOR the Existence of God
Arguments from Nature
To illustrate God's ultimate power and His infinite mercy, He created Nature. Nature is seen in Islam as a miracle of God.
Greatest sign of God's existence is the creation of nature and the universe.

Perhaps the greatest sign of God’s existence is the creation of nature and the universe.
The Kalām
Cosmological Argument
The Kalam cosmological argument is a variation of the cosmological arugment that argues for the existence of 'first cause' and the existence of God.
"Indeed your Lord is Allâh, who
created the heavens and the earth
in Six Days, and then He rose over the Throne. He
brings the night as a cover over the day
, seeking it rapidly, and
He created the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command
. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allâh, the
Lord of the 'Alamîn." ( all that exists)
(al-A`raf  7:54)
"O mankind! worship your Lord, Who hath
created you and those before you
, so that ye may ward off (evil). Who hath
appointed the earth a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and causeth water to pour down from the sky
, thereby
producing fruits as food

for you
. And do not set up rivals to Allah when ye know better." (al-Baqarah 2:21-22)
1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
2. The universe began to exist.
3. Therefore, the universe had a cause.
‘Blessed be He Who hath placed in the heaven mansions of the stars, and hath placed therein a great lamp and a moon giving light!’ (Quran 25:61)
The Problem of Evil
The Problem of Evil is the most serious problem in the world. Also one serious objection to the existence of God.

The Problem: "If God is so good, why is His world so bad? If an all-good, all-wise, all-loving, all-just, and all-powerful God is in control of the world? Why do bad things happen to good people?"

C.S Lewis recalls that as an atheist he did not believe God existed. "I was also very angry with him for not existing. I was also angry with him for having created the world."
Evidence Against existence of God
Karl Marx
Humans create God in order to help them to deal with the pain and suffering of life.
"Man makes religion, religion does not make man"
Religion is a tool used by those in power to oppress the mass. Working class were taught to believe their position is society was the will of God, they will recieve their reward in the next life.
Ludwig Feuerbach
In 'The Essence of Christianity', Feuerbach argued that humans had invented God. Humans seek immorality and so create an immortal God.
"Consciousness of God is human self - consciousness; knowledge of God is human self - knowledge."
Humans project their ideas onto God.
The Meaning Of Life
Conclusion & Personal opinions
In conclusion we can see why many Muslims believe In God due to evidence in the Qur'an and why many others may not believe in God due to belief in things such as science or sociological idea's of the existence of God.
Craig, William Lane (2000). The Kalam Cosmological Argument. Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publishers.
Dawkins, R (2006). The God Delusion. London: Tansworld Publishers.
Fazlur, R (1980) Major themes of the Qur’an. Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica
John Hick (1988). God and The Universe Of Faiths. 3rd ed. London: Macmillan. 
Mackie, J.L (1982). The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
Pals. L. Daniel (2006). Eight Theories of Religion. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smart, J.J.C and Haldane, J.J (2003). Atheism & Theism. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

1. Our understanding of God is that
than which nothing greater can be
2. God exists in the mind.
3. A being which exists in both the mind
and in reality is greater than a being that exists only in the mind.
4. Therefore If God only exists in the mind, then we could conceive of a being greater i.e, one which exists in reality.
5. Therefore God must exist in reality in order to make to premise one correct.
C. Therefore, God exist if this is the accepted definition of God.

The Ontological Argument
Richard Dawkins
"The sun sets into a specific location, according to the
design of the Almighty
, the Omniscient. The
moon we designed to appear in stages
, until it becomes like an old curved sheath. The
sun is never to catch up with the moon
. The
night and the day never deviate
each of them is floating in its own orbit
." (Qur'an 36:38-40)
Qur'anic Responses
•“The One Who created death and life, so that He may put you to test, to find out which of you is best in deeds: He is the all-Almighty, the all-Forgiving” (Qur'an 67:2)

The Qur'an states: "Do you think that you will enter paradise without any trials while you have known the examples of those who passed away before you? They were afflicted with suffering and adversity" (Qur'an 2:214)
John Hick
God must be ultimately responsible for the existence of evil.

God chose to create the world despite knowing that 'The Fall' would occur.

Therefore, God allowed evil occur.
"To many, the most powerful, positive objection to belief in God is the fact of evil."
Dawkins argument is a response to the argument of Design.

He claims that it is a natural temptation to attribute the appearance of design to actual design itself, E.g. A watch and its engineer - apply same logic to an eye or a wing, or spider or a person.

The temptation is a false one, the designer hypothesis immediately raises the question of who designed the designer?
Qur'anic Response
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