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Why did International Peace Collapse by 1939?
Transcript of Why did International Peace Collapse by 1939?
Both of these events showed that the League of Nations was failing. Its decisions were not helpful, and didn't improve much. Countries were also able to easily ignore the League of Nations when they didn't agree. Japan Italy Britain & France all betrayed the league. It also encouraged Hitler to move on with his plans. In 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia, because Mussolini was trying to build up an Italian Empire . It was conveniently located right next to Somalia, which was already owned my Italy.
Britain and France worked together to attempt to give Abyssinia to Italy. Italy’s Invasion of Abyssinia How did these two events contribute to war? After the Great Depression, Japan, like many other big nations around the world, was in an economic crisis.In 1932, Japan attacked and seized a place in China called Manchuria. Owning more land would create more jobs for their people, helping Japan's economy.
They seized Manchuria because they had said that the Chinese had interfered with the Manchurian railway, which was controlled by Japan. This was likely just an excuse to gain more power.
(BBC) The Manchurian Crisis Works Cited: 1932, February. "BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Two important events." BBC - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/manchuriarev1.shtml>.Rosenberg, Jennifer. "World War II Starts." 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiistarts.htm>.
"BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Summary." BBC - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/nazisovietpactrev1.shtml>.
Category. "Stalin's Five Year Plans." 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/ss/Stalin_6.htm>.
"The Dawes Plan of 1924." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/dawes_plan_1924.htm>.
•Hickman, Kennedy. "Causes of World War II - Causes of World War II in Europe." Military History - Warfare through the Ages - Battles and Conflicts - Weapons of War - Military Leaders in History. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. <http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm>. This event also showed that the League of Nations was weak. It did nothing to help the situation, allowing Japan to continue to stand strong. Japan then left the League of Nations. Every year, on October 29, the USA is reminded of the Stock Market crash. This day each year is called Black Friday. In 1929, there was a worldwide economic crash that had started in the USA. It lowered employment rate all over the world, and caused panic everywhere. The crash was caused by people getting excited about the new stock market, and a huge number of Americans have been eager to invest their money. When it eventually crashed, jobs were lost and companies started losing more and more money. The Great Depression was a result of the Stock Market Crash, and it lasted about 10 years - the longest economic depression that had ever occurred. The world was in chaos.
This was another stepping stone to war because it not only occurred in one of the largest nations, but affected and trouble a large number of other nations in the world. The Stock Market Crash & the Great Depression - 1929 A big cause of the war were the German, Italian, and Japanese desires to expand their territory. German Annexation Hitler, too, wanted to expand German territory.
September 29, 1938 - The Munich Agreement had allowed a big part of Czechoslovakia to be given to Germany. The rest of it was taken soon after.
March 13, 1939 - Germany was able to take over Austria, which was a specific violation of the Treaty of Versailles. This event is also known as the Anschluss.
These events showed that Britain and France both did not try hard to stop Germany. This was because they were afraid that war would break out again. The British and French would not risk it, so they didn't care to put up a fight. They didn't realize that this was important in helping Hitler's "plan". The Nazi-Soviet Pact This was an unexpected pact between Hitler and Stalin on August 23, 1939. It said that neither country would go to war against the other. It also included a secret agreement to seize Poland and divide it between them.
It showed that Russia had switched sides from and alliance with Britain and France to a pact with Germany (BBC). Stalin basically took charge of Italy's entire economy in 1928. He watched and controlled the exporting of goods out of Italy. He was extremely strict about his rules. Those who disobeyed or rebelled against him were sent to prison camps, or even possibly put to death. There were 2 Five Year Plans: 1928 to
1932, and then another one from 1933 to 1937. Both did not turn out well. Stalin also did not allow any bad press or outgoing information about it. He wanted it to be a secret to other nations.
This showed how brutal and violent Stalin was at this time, and that he was determined to do everything his own way. Stalin's Five-Year Plan This plan was created to help Germany's economy return to normal and be able to pay its reparations from its huge World War 1 debt. The war was blamed on Germany, therefore resulting in massive debts that would be nearly impossible to pay off. Germany worked hard to pay these debts off but just couldn't do that without keeping its currency value up. This meant printing more and more money, and the value of German money would greatly decrease due to inflation.
The participating 5 nations in this plan had all gotten together to attempt to organize Germany again, and get them back on their feet and running.
This is important not only because it involved the USA (Charles Dawes was the head of the committee), however was too short to actually make a large impact. The Dawes Plan (1924) Hitler, soon after coming into power, had wanted to rearm the Rhineland - which was specifically not permitted in the Versailles Treaty. Hitler had wanted to rebuild Germany's weak military with the benefit of the high unemployment rate, meaning that there were many men in Germany who would have been very willing to join its military force. Hitler had been sure to make Germany well-prepared for war.
This shows Hitler's leadership goals in making Germany successful. The Rearmament of the Rhineland Fascism only became known in 1922, starting in Italy. Two traits of fascism is that it is usually very militaristic and nationalist. It is a governmental system in which one person is in complete control. Hitler and the Nazis are a very big example of a Fascist government. Starting his journey through governmental powers as chancellor of Germany in 1933, Hitler became a German dictator. He "brainwashed" the German people into believing that Nazi powers were what was best for their nation and that he would turn out to be a great leader of their country.
From this brainwashing, Hitler had been extremely lucky in finding good excuses to reach his goals. Before he was dictator, he found several incidents that occurred in Germany to his advantage and used them as excuses to do what he wanted (for example, blaming the fire on the Reichstag building on the Communist Party and using that to ban all parties that had opposed Nazism. Fascism In conclusion, 3 major ideas led to International Peace Collapse: Expansionism, economic issues, and Ideologies.