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The Evolution of the Camera

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Miguel Ayala

on 10 May 2013

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Transcript of The Evolution of the Camera

The Evolution of the Camera By Miguel Ayala The evolution of the camera has influenced its incorporation in today’s society, posing a potential threat to individual privacy because of it’s over accessibility. Evolution of Technology The camera has been used throughout history ever since, or even before the 1800s. It has had many stages of development. In my project I will discuss its main stages, which include the Camera Obscura, Daguerreotype, Autochrome, Polaroid Land Camera Model 95, Fuji film QuickSnap, Kodak DCS-100, and finally its integration with mobile phones. I will also cover some of the manufacturing and material changes that the camera has undergone. I will discuss the impact that the camera has had throughout history in our society. Lastly, I’ll show the changes in its function and use of today and how it has changed since it was invented. (Carrasco) Evolution of the Camera Camera Obscura (19th Century) Daguerreotype Camera (1839) Polaroid Land Camera (1948) Disposable Cameras (1986) Integration With Cell Phones (2000) The camera obscura wasn't initially used for taking pictures rather, it was used as an aide for artists. Artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, used the camera obscura to help them draw pictures, by letting the rays of light project the image they wanted in a dark room. As you can see in the diagram, light goes in through a small opening and creates an upside down image of whatever is infront of the opening (A Brief History). http://www.ehow.com/how_4450643_make-camera-obscura.html This camera used the same principle as the camera obscura, not letting any light pass through, except for the designated opening. The Daguerreotype camera was the first camera able to develop a permanent picture, after just eight minutes of exposure. Before this camera, the pictures taken would fade after a short time.The developing plates used for the camera were exposed to a solution of mercury vapor allowing the pictures to be permanent (Lindsay). http://arstechnica.com/uncategorized/2008/02/polaroid-60-years-marks-the-end-of-an-era/ The Polaroid Land Camera, named after its inventor Edwin Land, was the first camera able to actually print the picture taken within a minute. Land came up with the idea of instant film on a vacation in Santa Fe. By 1950, Polaroid had sold more than one million packs of instant film and was selling cameras though over four thousand dealers nationwide. Color film was later developed only helping Land's mass production (Foresman). Fujifilm Quicksnap http://www.cornelyu.ro/blog/?p=125 Kodak http://www.domie.co.uk/equipment.htm Invented by Japanese company, Fijufilm; the Quicksnap Cameras were the first line of successful disposable cameras produced. What made this camera so special was that it was cheap, and lightweight. This allowed them to be used in everyday life and not just on special occasions (Corne). Digital Camera (1991) The digital cameras, unlike the older cameras don’t use film. They save the images in a memory card and have low operating costs. They also produce photographs of better quality than disposable ones. The Kodak company took the lead in manufacturing digital cameras and in 1994 produced the world's first consumer-priced digital camera for Apple Computers (Harrod). http://www.productwiki.com/upload/images/kodak_easyshare_z1015_is.jpg http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRzLhuYJDWz2EfyXCsWedM-gErp1d-uFr_qIKmtiuK3wc2n7J2lSg J-SH04 (SoftBank Mobile) The SoftBank Mobile Phone was the first camera phone available to the public. But if you thought phones are expensive now, this phone actually cost $500 dollars. It was top of the line back then, and it took a whopping 1 megapixel picture. It was followed by the flip phone. It was such a big success that today, the production of phone cameras outweigh the production of all other types of cameras combined. Social, Environmental Driving Forces The social driving forces that made the invention of the camera so useful are that it enabled humans to record historic events. Before the camera people used to draw what they saw giving way for inaccuracies to occur. Also it gave people a chance to perhaps alter events or details in history. Now it allows people to record any moment that they want to remember with just a click of a button. Throughout the evolution the personal driving forces have changed also. http://www.handyguyspodcast.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/thinking_s.jpg personal driving forces There were not much behind the camera, it was mostly societal. In the 17th and 18th centuries the camera was mostly used by only artists like Jan Vermeer, Canaletto, Guardi, and Paul Sandby. This pushed the Camera obscura to become more portable. By the 19th century light sensitive material was added and thus became the photographic camera. Nowadays it’s more of a corporate competition to better the camera on cell phones especially. But companies are still trying to come up with new ways to innovate the digital camera, adding a touch screen is an example of this innovation. The improvement also helped solve some of the damage the chemicals were causing the environment. Impact Back when the cameras were first invented they required special chemicals to be able to develop the pictures taken. Thus, practically making them only useful to professional photographers. The film used in the old camera produced a lot of waste. There were lots of wasted cassettes, film spools, cardboard boxes and unwanted prints that are not properly discarded. Also the chemicals used for developing would sometimes end up in the water system. Environment Political The camera has helped politicians create a message and an identity to sway the public's vote. It can also hurt their image when private images are leaked. As in the case of Congressman Wiener, when private pictures of him were leaked on the internet and he was forced to resign. Most often photographs can be used as propaganda to gain support for, to discredit or create a certain image of someone. For example portrait photography can be used as a way for politicians to portray a certain persona to the public, to reach for example the blue collar workers or to create a type of status for themselves. Societal Impact Since the camera has impacted politics it has also had a major part in changing how society functions in general. The first major mass production of cameras happened with the introduction of disposable cameras, but digital cameras took even that to a new level.. They enable people to take as many photos as possible without the need to change films like in the past. The memory card also allows people to store hundreds of images at a time. Although presently, smart phones have threatened the digital cameras' existence. Digital cameras still take better quality pictures, but people nowadays prefer convenience. With the growth of social media, smartphones offer the convenience to take a picture and upload it to the website within seconds (Jonnala). Impact in Past Like I mentioned before, the camera was basically just used as an aide to artists, at first. Since they were the most interested in getting this new invention going, artists were usually the only ones to have one. The camera also gave society the tool to begin recording important events in history with more accuracy. Unfortunately like with every invention, there was also unintended consequences to the camera. Privacy Issues Cameras are everywhere buildings, computers, phones and even the recently manufactured tablets. Added with the fascination of social media this can be somewhat of a scary combination. http://www.beyondhollywood.com/uploads/2011/01/old-time-camera.jpg http://cache.gawkerassets.com/assets/images/4/2010/08/500x_500x_eye-cam.jpg Webcam Hack Since cameras became integrated with computers a whole new set of consequences arose from that. The webcams can be easily hacked by anyone, through malware or spyware on your computer. There has also been many instances of people accusing institutions of using webcams to spy on others. Such was the case in wich a family in Pennsylvania accused a school district of using webcams on school-issued laptops to spy on students and their families. Another instace happened in China where a sophisticated network of hackers known as GhostNet cracked 1,295 webcams in 103 countries. That's one of the reasons why it's important to have good protection programs on your computers (Boatman). Traffic light Injustice Some states have implemented cameras on traffic lights. The supporters of this legislation say that it can reduce traffic violations and perhaps prevent tragic accidents. Each time a person runs through a red light, it takes a picture. The camera also monitors speed, bus and high-occupancy-vehicle lanes and intersections with stop signs. The opposing side says it’s just a means of profit for cities and companies. They see it as an invasion of a drivers' privacy. My peers said it's unfair because for example; say it's 3 in the morning, the light is red but there's no traffic. If you drive through it, you would get a ticket. Even though there is no possible way anyone would get hurt. The controversy is ongoing (Riordan Seville). HOWEVER! the camera's most unfortunate consequence is the creation of the DREADED..... DUCK FACES!!!!!!! http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JoHc7AE9sXw/UKGQz-5WzrI/AAAAAAAAAek/XDYhOB0k18s/s1600/red-light-camera.gif http://loveisnotaboutgender.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/duck-face.jpg Bibliography "A Brief History of Photography." Curious-Eye. http://www.curious-eye.com/photography.php
Boatman, Kim. "Are Hackers Using Your Webcam to Watch You?." Norton. http://us.norton.com/yoursecurityresource/detail.jsp?aid=webcam_hacking (accessed March 21, 2013).
Carrasco, Hanna. "Evolution of the Camera." Snap Shot. http://webdesign.njit.edu/2012/248/evolution.html (accessed March 21, 2013).
Corne , Lyu. "10 cameras which changed the world." Cornelyu. http://www.cornelyu.ro/blog/?p=125 (accessed May 6, 2013).
Foresman, Chris. "Polaroid: 60 years marks the end of an era." ArsTechnica. http://arstechnica.com/uncategorized/2008/02/polaroid-60-years-marks-the-end-of-an-era/ (accessed May 6, 2013).
Gai, Bo. "A World Through the Camera Phone Lens: a Case Study of Beijing Camera Phone Use." Knowledge, Technology & Policy 22, no. 3 (Fall2009 2009): 195-204. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 9, 2013).
Harrod, Carlee. "Digital Photography Milestones from Kodak." Women in Photography International. http://www.womeninphotography.org/Events-Exhibits/Kodak/EasyShare_3.html (accessed May 8, 2013).
Jonnala, Rajkumar. "The Impact of Digital Cameras in our Lives." Techie State. http://www.techiestate.com/cameras-that-out-snap-the-iphone/ (accessed May 9, 2013).
Lindsay, David. "The Daguerreotype is Invented ." PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eastman/peopleevents/pande10.html (accessed May 5, 2013).
Riordan Seville, Lisa. "Lights, cameras, reaction: Resistance builds against red-light cameras." Open Channels on NBCNews.com. http://openchannel.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/02/19/17010355-lights-cameras-reaction-resistance-builds-against-red-light-cameras?lite (accessed February 19, 2013).
Wallace, Joseph. The Camera. New Canaan: CommonPlace Publishing, 200. (March 21, 2013).
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