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Vitamins

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Emilie Velazquez

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Vitamins

Vitamins
Cobalamin - B12
Significance
Vital to proper functioning of the brain and nervous system and production of blood
Water Soluble
Important in cell metabolism, energy production, and DNA synthesis.
Widely used in supplements called cyanocobalamin
History:
discovery of Cobalamin was made as scientists were seeking to find a cure for pernicious anemia
By- Emilie Velazquez ,Carmen Sosa, Kelli O'Shaughnessy, Victoria Bellavia, Monica Patel

Vitamins
Water-soluble dissolve or disperse in water
B complex vitamins, choline, and vitamin C
Fat-soluble
dissolve in fatty tissues or substances
A, D, E, and K
Thiamine B1
Riboflavin B2
Niacin B3
Cobalamin B12
B Complex Vitamins
Pork
Whole grain cereals and rice
Legumes
Nuts
Sources of B1
alters the nervous, muscular, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems.
Deficiencies
Toxicity & Deficiency
Sources of B2
Milk
Broccoli
Asparagus
Whole grains
Meats, Fish, Poultry
Niacin
Sources of B12
Dairy products
Liver
Fish
Shellfish
Eggs
Riboflavin
AKA
B2

Acts as a coenzyme in the release of energy from nutrients in cells.
Heat-Stable component of Vitamin B
Sensitive to light and irradiation
Ribo....What?
High doses of Riboflavin(B2) do not show to be of toxicity.

Harmless Orange/Yellowish urine.
Toxicity
Deficiencies
Ariboflavinosis

Lips become swollen and cracks develop in the corners of the mouth
Greasy scales near mouth, ears and nose
Toungue becomes inflammed swollen or purplish
In U.S. related to Anorexia Nervosa

History of Riboflavin
Paul Gyorgy (1923)
-He first discovered that B2 alongwith B1 were required by rats in order to grow and prevent skin lesions.
- Gyorgy decided to test the effect of B2 on vitamin H deficiency
-With the help of Kuhan's lab he was able to isolate both ovoflavin from egg whites and lactoflavin from whey.

Niacin
Occurs naturally in two forms:
nicotinic acid
niacinamide
Can be found in foods or as its precursor amino acid, tryptophan.
Function of B3
Critical for glycolosis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
A good coenzyme for many enzymes (esp. ones related to energy metablism)
Works Cited

"What Is Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)? Its History,
Source and Dosage." Wellness. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013.
"Thiamine (vitamin B1)." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation
for Medical Education and Research, 01 Sept. 2012.
Web. 23 Sept. 2013.
University of Maryland Medical Cente. (2013, July 31). Complementary and alternative medicine guide. Retrieved from http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed



Sources and amount of intake recommended
Foods with good amounts of protein are a good source such as:
Meats
Poultry
Fish
Enriched cereals
Milk/Coffee/Tea

The RDA recommended amount is 16mg NE for men and 14mg NE for women.
*** 1 mg of niacin / 60 mg of tryptophan = 1 mg NE
Deficiency
Pellagra is characterized by:
1. Diarrhea
2. Dermatitis
3. Dementia
Toxicity
The upper limit for Niacin is
35
mg NE/day
If consumed over it can:
affect the vascular system, causing flushing effects throughout the body
liver damage
gout and arthritic reactions
birth defects
blurred vision/blindness
Thiamine
B1
Acts as a coenzyme for energy such as metabolism
Also plays a role in nerve functioning related to muscle actions.
Beriberi
Characterized by
Ataxia (muscle weakness and loss of coordination)
tachycardia (rapid beating of the heart)
wet beriberi (affects cardiovascular system by weaking heart muscles)
dry beriberi (affects nervous system, produces paralysis and extreme muscle wasting)
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
very serve deficiency
may cause cerebral form of beriberi
most common disorder of central nerveous system
affects of excessive alcohol
others at risk for syndrome
have serve GI disease
HIV
improper parenteral glucose solution
Effects
loss of memory
extreme mental confusion
History
first of water-soluble vitamins to be descirbed.
previously known as aneurine
isolated and characterized in 1920's
one of the first organic compounds to be recognized as a vitamin.
Deficiencies

Pellagra
Characterized by:
1) Diarrhea
2) Dermatitis
3) Dementia

Deficiency
Deficiency
can cause damage to nervous system and brain
fatigue
depression
poor memory

Also known as B3, and less commonly known as Vitamin PP
Discovered by Hugo Weidel
Named B3 because it was the 3rd of the B vitamins to be discovered
The recommended daily allowance is:
-1.3mg for Males
-1.1 mg for Females
Periods of increased protein, require increase riboflavin like:
- Pregnancy
-Lactation
-Wound Healing
-Growth Periods
Recommended Intake
Toxicity
Has not been noted, but no benefits to large doses unless deficiency exists.
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