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Body Systems

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Audrey Jennings

on 13 October 2015

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Transcript of Body Systems

The human body
Chapter 5
Body Systems

The medial aspect of a bone is the part that lies:
I know you learned a lot!
The normal resting adult heart rate is:
The largest part of the brain is the:
Which of the following statements about red blood cells is FALSE?
The human body is amazing! It is a complex network of cells that come together to make tissues, which make up organs, that make up organ systems, that make up you and make you work! Let's learn about the body systems.
The left atrium of the heart receives ____ blood from the _____.
Nervous System
Parts of the Nervous System
The nervous system may be the most complex organ in the body
Two parts:
Central (CNS) = brain and spinal cord
Peripheral (PNS) = motor and sensory nerves
Central Nervous System
Controlling organ of the body
3 subdivisions:
Brain Stem
has 3 areas: midbrain, pons, and medulla
Spinal Cord
Continuation of the brain
Relays messages between body and brain
Made of nerve cells that extend from the brain
Uses electrical impulses as signals
Exits through the foramen magnum
Peripheral Nervous System
Everything except the brain and spinal cord
Two types of nerves in the PNS
Spinal Reflexes
Cells in the spinal cord that connect the sensory and motor nerves
Bypass the brain
Defense mechanism
There are two types of nerves in the PNS
Sensory Nerves
Have sensors for everything
Signal sent to the spinal cord then up to the brain
Motor Nerves
There are two types of motor nerves
Two major divisions of the autonomic system
"fight or flight"
"rest and digest"
Two types of Motor Nerves:
Somatic Nervous System
Controls voluntary actions
Autonomic Nervous System
Involuntary controls
There are two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system
Skeletal System

the Skeleton
Why do we need a skeleton?
Ligaments vs tendons
Cartilage prevents bones from rubbing together
Two Divisions of the Skeletal System
Framework appendicular hangs on
Composed of:
Skull, Spinal column, Thorax
Composed of
upper extremities, pelvis, lower extremities
The Skull
Skull has two groups of bones:
several bones fused together
protects the brain
Facial Bones
composed of 14 bones
The Spinal Column
Supporting structure of the body
Bones called vertebrae
Cervical (7
Thoracic (12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (5)
Coccyx (4)- aka: the tail bone
Parts of the Vertebrae
The Thorax
aka the chest
What is found inside?
formed by 12 thoracic vertebrae and 12 pairs of ribs
The Shoulder Girdle
Top of the upper extremity to the fingers
Three bones come together to move arm
Clavicle, scapula, and humerus
The Arm, Wrist, and Hand
consists of the humerus, radius, and ulna
humerus is the supporting bone
Wrist and hand
The wrist is a modified ball and socket joint
8 bones called the carpals
carpals --> metacarpals
the metacarpals --> phalanges
The Pelvis
Closed bony ring:
Sacrum and two pelvis bones
Pelvis bone fusion of:
ilium, ischium, and pubis
Join at pubic symphysis
The Lower Extremity
aka: thigh bone
Femoral head connects into acetabulum
great trocanter
lesser trocanter
Knee, Tibia, and fibula
Knee connects upper and lower leg
Patella aka: kneecap
The tibia aka: shinbone
The fibula on lateral side
Ankle and foot
Ankle is a hinge joint
Foot has seven tarsal bones
talus= largest bone
calcaneous (heel bone)
5 metatarsals form the foot
14 phalanges form the toes
What is a joint?
joint- aka: articulation
place where two bones join together
Different kinds of joints:
Slightly movable
Joint capsule
synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid
Cardiac Muscle
Only found in the heart
Have intercalated discs
Important for conduction for contraction
Smooth Muscle
These are found in multiple places
Differences in structure
Many have gap junctions to communicate
Skeletal Muscle
Attaches to the bones of the skeleton
Voluntary movement
Most work in antagonistic pairs
The Muscloskeletal System
Why do we need muscles?
More than 600 muscles in this system
Three muscle types
The Respiratory System
Upper Airway
Lower Airway
Muscles of Breathing
normal Breathing
Inadequate Breathing
What are the characteristics of normal breathing?
What is a normal respiration rate?
Difficulty breathing (dyspnea)
Slower breathing (bradypnea)
Faster breathing (tachypnea)
May appear to be breathing after the heart has stopped
Gasping breathes called agonal gasps
Not adequate
Need to ventilate these patients
Nose, mouth, tongue, jaw, and oral cavity
oropharynx and nasopharynx
Larynx is the dividing line
Trachea: aka Windpipe
Carina divides the right and left main stem bronchi
Bronchi branch into bronchioles
Bronchoiles end in alveoli
Do these people look like they're having trouble breathing?
Lungs are held in place by:
trachea, vessels, and pulmonary ligaments
Divided into two lobes
bronchi -->bronchoiles --> alveoli
alveoli do gas exchange
Covered in smooth lining called pleura
visceral pleura= covers the lungs
parietal pleura= lines the chest wall
Pleural space filled with fluid for gliding during respiration

Abdominal, pectoral, and intercostal muscles
Negative pressure breathing
Exhalation normally does not require muscles
Movement of air between lungs and environment
Tidal volume
Inspiratory reserve volume
Expiratory reserve volume
Residual Volume
Dead space
Minute Volume= Respiratory Rate x Tidal Volume
Patient is not breathing adequately?
Use a bag valve mask (BVM)!
The Process of gas exchange
Provides Oxygen to the cells and removes carbon dioxide
This helps control the blood pH
Gas Exchange
O2 passes into a fine network of pulmonary capillaries
Capillaries are in close contact with alveoli
Via diffusion
Not absorb all oxygen
16% is exhaled -- Exhale 3-5% CO2
Chemical Control of Breathing
The Brain Stem controls breathing
Nerves that sense levels of CO2 in the spinal fluid
increased CO2 decreases blood pH
medulla oblongata --> phrenic nerve--> diaphragm
Hypoxic drive- the "backup system"
Sensors for oxygen levels in the aorta, carotid arteries, and areas of the brain
Nervous system control of breathing

Medulla has two areas that control breathing
Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)
breathing pacemaker
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)
Changes the depth of respiration
Pons also helps regulate DRG activity
The pons and medulla work together
The Circulatory System
Normal Heartbeat
Electrical Conduction System
Blood Composition
Circulatory system- aka: Cardiovascular System
Complex arrangement of connected tubes
Completely closed system
Two body circuits
Systemic= in the body
Pulmonary= in the lungs
The Heart
Hollow and muscular organ
aka: myocardium
Works as two paired pumps
left side and right side
Each side of the heart is divided into chambers
Upper chamber= atrium
Lower chamber= ventricle
Involuntary Muscle
Own electrical system
High oxygen demand

What is a normal heart rate?
Stroke volume (SV)
Cardiac Output (CO)= the amount of blood moved in a minute
In 1 minute the entire blood volume (5-6L) of blood is circulated
Specialized network for conducting electrical signals
Smooth and coordinated contractions
2 steps to contraction
1. Depolarization: from negative to positive
2. Repolarization: returns to the resting state with a negative charge
Carry blood away from the heart to all body tissues
arteries--> arterioles--> capillaries
Constrict and dilate
Allow palpation of pulse
Major Arteries:
Pulmonary artery
Dorsalis pedis
Have billions!
Contact between blood and cells of the tissue
Move through single file
Capillaries connect with an arteriole and venule
Protective measures:
Brings oxygen depleted blood back to the heart
Comes from venules--> veins --> vena cava
Superior- blood from upper body
Inferior- blood from the lower body
Empty into the right atrium
Can also dilate and contract
Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)
Composed of Red Blood Cells (RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), and platelets
Liquid portion of the blood
Carries the blood cells and nutrients
Made up of:
Red Blood Cells
aka: erythrocytes
contain hemoglobin
carries oxygen
White Blood Cells
aka leukocytes
play a major role in the body's immune system
Tiny disc shaped elements
Much smaller than cells
Essential for clotting
Organ in the LUQ
Filters blood
About 450mL of blood in the spleen
Easily injured from blunt trauma
Can cause lots of internal bleeding
Normal Circulation in Adults
Vessels not fully dilated or constricted
Perfusion= The circulation of blood in an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs
Shock aka: hypoperfusion - If an organ or tissue is not getting enough blood flow
Inadequate Circulation in Adults
Blood loss triggers compensation
Try maintain blood pressure
Vessels constrict
Heart rate increases
If the blood loss is too great, patient goes into shock
Functions of Blood
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure (BP)= the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries
Systole and Diastole
Measured by a sphygmomanometer- aka:blood pressure cuff
measured in mm Hg
Fighting infection
Controlling pH
Clotting (coagulation)
Nervous System Control
Most superficial layer
Two layers:
Germinal layer
Stratum corneal layer
Several layers of dead cells
Watertight seal
Varies in thickness
Contains many specialized structures
Sebaceous glands
Blood vessels
Sweat glands
Nerve endings
Hair follicles
Subcutaneous Tissue
Largely composed of fat
Below is muscle and bone
Helps anchor skin
This is the largest organ in the body
All external body surfaces are covered by it
Protect the body
Regulate body temperature
Provide sensory information
The Digestive System
aka: gastrointestinal system
The Abdomen
Major body cavity
Contains major organs for digestion and excretion
Enclosed by thick muscular walls
Has four quadrants
Consists of the lips, cheeks, gums, teeth, and tongue
Lined by a mucous membrane
Has a hard and soft palate
Salivary glands
Saliva serves as lubricant and has digestive enzymes
Back of mouth to esophagus and trachea
Forces epiglottis movement when swallowing
collapsible tube
about 10" long
extends from pharynx to stomach
Contractions propel food to stomach
Hollow organ in LUQ
Food mixes with gastric juices
Contractions in the stomach walls
Forms chyme
Pushes the chyme into the duodenum
Coverings of the Brain
aka: meninges
Solid organ
Lies behind and below the stomach and the liver in peritoneum
Has two types of glands:
Exocrine: makes pancreatic juice
produces insulin
Large solid organ
Below the diaphragm in the RUQ
Has several functions:
Produces clotting factors and plasma
Makes bile
Stores sugar and fat
Helps in immune response
Has very large blood flow
Connect liver to intestines
Gallbladder is a continuation of the bile ducts
Stores and concentrate bile
Delivers bile to duodenum through common bile duct
Small Intestines
Main place for nutrient absorption
Helps in digestion
Cells in the lining produce digestive enzymes
Receives bile from gallbladder
Composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Duodenum mixing point for digestive enzymes
Rest of intestines for absorption
Large Intestines
Consists of the cecum, colon, and rectum
Appendix opens into the cecum
Cecum absorbs the remaining digested food and water
Stool is stored in the rectum
Passes out of the body through the rectum
Rectum contains sphincters
About the Digestive System
Digestion= food in mouth--> nutrients to cells
Digestive enzymes added
Nutrients absorbed in intestines
Taken to liver
The blood circulates nutrients
The Endocrine System
About the Endocrine System
Another way the brain can control the body
Hormones that travel via blood stream
Hormone has a specific effect on a specific tissue
Controlled by negative feedback loops
Excess or deficiencies causes disease
Follow along on page 184
Table 5-13
The Urinary System
Controls the excretion of certain wastes filtered from the blood
Three main functions
Fluid balance in the body
pH balance
Filter and eliminate waste
Lie in the retroperitoneal space
Rid the body of toxic wastes
Control the balance of water and salts
High blood flow
Forms urine
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
1. The _____ lies in the retroperitoneal space
A. Liver
B. Spleen
C. Kidneys
D. Stomach
2. The cartilagenous tip of the sternum is called the _____.
A. Costal Arch
B. Manubrium
C. Angle of Louis
D. Xyphoid process
A person with bilateral femur fractures has:
A. One fractured femur
B. Two fractured femurs
C. A femur fractured in two places
D. Fractured the lateral aspect of the femur
The MOST prominent landmark on the anterior surface of the neck is:
A. Mastoid Process
B. Cricoid cartilage
C. Thyroid cartilage
D. Cricothyroid membrane
This is also called the adam's apple
Insulin is produced in the:
A. Liver
B. Pancreas
C. Thyroid gland
D. Adrenal glands
A. Closer to the feet
B. Closer to the back
C. Closer to the midline of the body
D. Away from the midline of the body
A. 50-70 beats/min
B. 60-100 beats/min
C. 80-110 beats/min
D. 110-120 beats/min
A. oxygenated, lungs
B. deoxygenated, body
C. oxygenated, body
D. deoxygenated, lungs
Consists of testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and penis
Each testicle has specialized ducts
Produce hormones and sperm
Produced in seminal vesicles
Matures in epididymis
During ejaculation: vasa deferentia (vas deferens) --> ejaculatory duct--> urethra--> penis
Sperm can join with an egg to create an offspring
sex hormones
Testicles secrete sex hormones
Give men their secondary sex characteristics:
increased muscle mass
body hair
deep voice
Increase sex drive
Includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and vagina
Two functions
Responsible for sexual characteristics
Mature egg released every 28 days
Egg travels down the fallopian tube
fertilization occurs
Fallopian tube opens into the uterus
Uterus opens to the vagina via the cervix
A. Cerebrum
B. Brain Stem
C. Cerebellum
D. Foramen Magnum
A. They contain iron
B. The carry oxygen
C. They fight infection
D. They give color to the blood
Basic building blocks of the body
Require oxygen, nutrients, and the removal of waste
Without, cells become damaged and die
Cells--> tissues --> organs --> organ systems-->you!
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Used to store energy
Aerobic metabolism uses oxygen
15x the amount of ATP in the presence of oxygen (net 32)
Anaerobic metabolism when lack of oxygen
Produces lactic acid
net of 2 ATP
Movement of nutrients
Life Support Chain
Movement of oxygen, waste, and nutrients occurs by diffusion
The pH of the interstitial fluid is crucial
cells want to be in a neutral pH (7)
Normal blood pH is about 7.4
The study of functional changes that occur when the body reacts to disease
How Much blood do we have?
What are the components?
If no fertilization menstruation occurs
If fertilized and implanted:
Pregnancy takes about 40 weeks
Baby will pass through vagina
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