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AP English - Investigative Journalism

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by

Patrick Alfieri

on 10 March 2015

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Transcript of AP English - Investigative Journalism

Why is investigative journalism important and what challenges does it face
?
Let's take a look
Herbert Bayer Swope wrote
"Inside the German Empire"
Investigative Journalism
Patrick Alfieri
Abby Salkin
Lauren Direnzo
Mia Francisco
Mark Feldstein, a journalism professor at the University of Maryland and a former investigative correspondent at CNN, once described investigative journalism as:
"
A vital bulwark of democracy
"

BUT WHAT IS IT?
I
n order to understand
WHAT?
investigative journalism is, we first have to understand
WHY?
it exists
.
A recent survey asked American journalists to rate the importance of "things that the news media does today"
This is what they
said
*

71
59
40
11
24
HOW DID IT BEGIN?
"muckraking"


Term coined by President Theodore Roosevelt
muckraker = an investigative crusader that inflamed the masses
otherwise known as
an investigative reporter
however, investigative reporting existed long before it peaked in the 1920s by muckrakers.
The earliest known investigative reporting in the U.S. can be traced back to a colonial newspaper published in 1690 by Printer Benjamin Harris.
Investigative reporting became increasingly relevant in the years leading up to the American Revolution.
colonial newspapers and pamphlets used investigative reporting to challenge the British and express their grievances.
After the revolution, investigative reporting was used as a partisan weapon.
Federalists v. Republicans
investigative journalism was utilized by abolitionists, early union organizers and other activists who established their own newspapers.
however it was limited by a low literacy rate, government dependency, population dispersion and technological limits.
investigative reporting significantly increased after the civil war.
Boss Tweed and New York City's Tammany Hall's unethical practices were exposed in the New York Times.
The Credit Mobilier Scandal inside the Grant Administration was also exposed by an investigative report in The New York Sun.
By the late 19th century newspapers became less partisan and focused on becoming commercial.
Urbanization, technological improvements, and an increased literacy rate set the stage for a growth in investigative reporting.
The decade between 1902 and 1912 is considered the "heyday" of investigative journalism.
"the golden age of public service journalism"
Lincoln Steffens
exposed municipal corruption in
The Shame of Cities
Ida Tarbell
exposed the crimes of John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company
Upton Sinclair
worked undercover in Chicago meatplants to expose the horrific conditions in his book, "The Jungle"
Investigate claims made by corporations and the government
Discuss national policy
Point to possible solutions
Get information quickly to the public
Provide entertainment
*
The percentage of journalists that ranked the each of these media roles as "extremely important"
BUT WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH
INVESTIGATIVE JOURNALISM
?
LETS TAKE ANOTHER LOOK AT THE CHART
IN ORDER TO FULFILL WHAT JOURNALISTS OVERWHELMINGLY AGREE IS THEIR MOST
IMPORTANT ROLE, THEY MUST :
INVESTIGATE

Hence,
Investigative
Journalism


Wikipedia
defines

investigative journalism

as :
"
a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing
"
As the internet and social media become ubiquitous, it is increasingly difficult to determine what counts as investigative journalism
.

In late 2012, defense contractor Edward Snowden contacted British news giant The Guardian with troubling news. He claimed that the National Security Agency was collecting sensitive internet data from
millions
of Americans
without
their knowledge or permission
Newspapers
Books
Television
Websites
Even Social Media
Investigative journalism
can be presented through many different news mediums
It emphasized the atrocities of the KKK
Finally a definition!
Edward Murrow and Fred W. Friendly exposed McCarthy and his communistic campaign against innocent citizens on a televised episode of "See it Now".
The Watergate scandal was exposed Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
He also claimed to have proof
.
In the months that followed, Snowden leaked
THOUSANDS
of classified government documents outlining top-secret surveillance programs
Here he is, explaining his decision
YES
NO
Some
think he is both an investigative journalist and a hero
Others
, including the US government, think he is a criminal - certainly not an investigative reporter
JAIL
However,
EVERYONE
agrees that investigative journalism is changing in the digital age
Investigative Journalism Today
.

The impact of investigative journalism
.
The End
.

Pros Cons
- A well informed populace
- Social reform
- Improved standard of
living
- An overly negative
perception of the news
- Potential bias
Is Snowden an investigative journalist
?
Full transcript