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11R: Reconstruction of the South 1865.
Transcript of 11R: Reconstruction of the South 1865.
1865 - 1877
What is Reconstruction?
Step 1: Sherman's orders.
Step 2: Stacking the ties.
Step 3: Burning the ties.
Step 4: Creating Sherman's Neckties.
How did this destruction occurr?
2. Southern Economy
How to admit the Southern states back into the Union?
How did Congress react to the plan?
Republicans Respond 1864
* Wade-Davis Bill
1. 50% of voters must swear loyalty
2. States had to cancel acts of secession
3. States had to abolish slavery
4. Federal courts empowered to enforce
5. Freedmans Bureau was established
a. The Bureau was largely run by whites
b. It provided food, clothing, medical
care, and oversaw land grants to freed
c. It sought to guarantee “full and equal
benefit of all laws and proceedings for
the security of person and property as
is enjoyed by all white citizens”
punish the south
Transform Southern society
Safeguard rights of former slaves
Radical Republican Goals
Redraft State constitution &
10% of voters swear loyalty
Political Setbacks to Reconstruction
2. Southern Resistance to Reconstruction
Bans Slavery in US
1. Grants citizenship to all
persons born in U.S.
2. No state can deny
- life, liberty, happiness
- due process of law
- equal protection under law
Ku Klux Klan
Right to vote cannot be denied based on:
Jim Crow Laws
3. Why could the South get away with constitutional violations?
Was Reconstruction a success or failure?
What needed to be rebuilt?
3. National Goverment
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Southern defiance of Reconstruction, depicted here by the three men—a thug with a club in his hand and bottle in his pocket; a Confederate soldier holding a dagger with the words "the lost cause" on it; and a wealthy man with "capital for votes" in his hand—standing over a black man, who appears to have been holding a U.S. flag. In the background a black orphanage and school burn. The caption reads, "'We regard the Reconstruction Acts (so called) of Congress as usurpations, and unconstitutional, revolutionary, and void.'—Democratic Platform." Published in Harper's Weekly, September 5, 1868. (LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS DIVISION)
WHEREAS no legal State governments or adequate protection for life or property now exists in the rebel States of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Arkansas; and whereas it is necessary that peace and good order should be enforced in said States until loyal and republican State governments can be legally established...Be it enacted That said rebel States shall be divided into military districts and made subject to the military authority of the United States
In particular, supporters justified placing the South under military rule on the grounds that there were no lawful governments in the South. They expressed that belief in the first Reconstruction Act of 1867:
Problems in the South
• Destruction of factories, railroads, plantations, small farms
• Burned cities
• Miles of railroad track destroyed
• Businesses and factories destroyed or dismantled
• Evaporation of investment capital and labor pool (slaves)
“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and orphan—to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”
April 14, 1865. His successor, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, lacked his predecessor’s skills in handling people; those skills would be badly missed. Johnson’s plan envisioned the following:
Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath
No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000
A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted
A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
1867 Tenure of Office Act was at the heart of the problem; however, it wasn't Andrew Johnson's veto of The Tenure in Office Act that led to his impeachment; it was his later disregard of the law that did.
The Little Boy Who Would Persist, March 1868
Tenure of Office Act 1867
Designed to prevent the president from removing any appointed Federal employee (especially cabinet members) without the approval of Congress.
Congress wanted to stop Johnson from removing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton which would interfere with the Military occupation of the South.