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Transcript of Computer Timeline-Scott
The first real computers were made using vacuum tubes as switches to do the blunt of the computer's processing. These computers were slow, expensive, and large. The vacuum tubes heated up just like light bulbs and needed to be cooled regularly. Although it was a slow start, it was a step in the right direction.
The Second Generation (1956-1963)
When the transistor was invented, the modern computer started to take shape. The transistor was much smaller and less expensive than the vacuum tube and allowed for more advanced problem solving. Computers also started to become much more affordable and reliable. Scientists and engineers began using them to do calculations to save time.
The Third Generation (1964-1971)
The computer really began to look more like a modern computer during this age. Integrated circuits were installed in the new line of computers and called semiconductors. This resulted in a major boost in speed as well as efficiency. The rudimentary punch cards and printouts used in the previous computers were replaced with keyboards and monitors.
The Fourth Generation (1971-present)
This new line of computers is what we are familiar with today. When the microprocessor was created the computer was converted from a clunky, loud, room sized device to a much smaller component that could fit on a desk. This age saw the first commercialized computers made by IBM and Apple. Soon the internet would be created and even now the computer is evolving into what the future can only tell.
In 1936 the first programmable computer was created by Konrad Zuse. This dinosaur of a computer, called the Z1 computer, used vacuum tubes as switches and a language called binary. This monster of computer took up an entire room.
The History of the Computer
A. S. Douglas, who had written his PhD on human/computer interaction, created the first computer game ever in 1952. His game was a variation of Tic-Tac-Toe and launched on a vacuum tube computer called the EDSAC.
The IBM 1400 Series were a major breakthrough for IBM. The first computer in this series is the IBM 1401. The 1401 was a computer system that used transistors instead of the vacuum tubes found in previous IBM computers. The system contained many peripherals, which included, among others, a new high-speed printer. This printer could print 600 lines per minute! The total cost of an IBM 1401 was $150,000. 12,000 of these computers were produced.
FORTRAN, an acronym for Formula Translator was the first successful programming language. This language used words and sentences instead of the binary machine codes that had been commonplace in computers prior to the 1950s. FORTRAN could be read by ordinary people with no previous programming experience or knowledge, and it made it easier for computers to be programmed. FORTRAN was extremely useful in that given a single statement, many instructions would be produced. FORTAN created programs that were just as good as those produced by human programmers. Not only was it one of the most successful programming languages ever, but it also dominated many other languages for years.
Nicknamed the "Floppy" for its flexibility.
In November of 1972, Intel came out with a new 8-bit processor, known as the Intel 8008.
Apple Computer was started by Stephen G. Wozniak and Steven P. Jobs. In 1976, the company introduced the Apple II to the personal computer market. The Apple II was appealing to consumers, because of its abundance of appealing software and with its well-written manuals. The computer also was able to be plugged into a standard household outlet.
The powerful word processor used in nearly every household today, Microsoft Word, makes its debut as "Multi-Tool Word" in 1983. Microsoft Word can be used for all sorts of word-processing tasks and for creating all sorts of text documents. It is now widely used and widely distributed. Two years after introducing Word to the general public, the company, Microsoft, then introduces its now-famous Microsoft Windows.
Microsoft begins the friendly war with Apple.
The Apple Macintosh was designed by Apple Computer and had many of the same features as the Lisa computer, also designed by Apple. The main goal of the Macintosh was to create a computer that would accommodate as many as Lisa's features as possible at a much lower price. It slimmed down on Lisa's high-level languages, and it also used the minimum number of chips and circuit boards needed to operate efficiently. It had graphical user interface and a user-friendly design. The computer contained software in which users could point and click with a mouse. For example, there was MacPaint and MacWrite. The Apple Macintosh used a 32-bit Motorola 68000 central processing unit and had a 9 inch black and white screen. It was first sold for $2,500.
With the invention of the HP-2115, the company Hewlett Packard enters the computer business.
GUI (graphical user interface, pronounced gooey) was designed by the Xerox Corporation. GUI allowed users to be able to "point and click." In other words, the computer screen was designed to resemble a desktop. It had click-able folders, calculators, etc. which were represented by images known as icons. Users could click on these icons to move and manipulate the folders and other tools. GUI made using computers much easier and is currently found in modern-day computers.