Transcript of Timeline 1820-1860
Jackson first ran for president in the Election of 1824. He ran against John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and William Becknell. Jackson won the most electoral votes but not the majority. It was up to the House of Representatives to decide which of the final two candidates, Jackson or Adams, would become president. As speaker of the house, Clay had great influence. Adams convinced him to tell his supporters to vote for him. Adams won the election and became president. In return, he made Clay Secretary of State. This became known as the corrupt bargain/secret deal. This scandal kept Adams from being reelected. The Missouri Compromise was created. It added Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. It stated that any territory above the line would not allow slavery when it became a state and any land below the line would allow slavery when it became a state. 1820 Mexico won its independence from Spain. 1821 William Becknell opened the Santa Fe Trail. It established trade between Santa Fe, New Mexico and Independence, Missouri. Liberia was founded in West Africa. 1822 The Monroe Doctrine was issued. It stated that America was not to let Europe create further colonies in Latin America and that any attacks on new countries in Latin America were to be interpreted as attacks on the United States itself. 1823 Adams gave his 4th of July speech. The Republican party split into National Republicans and Democrats. 1824 James Monroe suggested a plan to remove Native Americans. 1825 Charles Finney began holding religious revival meetings. 1826 Georgia began passing laws to try to remove Native Americans. Cherokees established a government based on a written contitution. James Monroe was president. 1827 Congress passed a law increasing tariffs on iron and textiles. 1828 In the Election of 1820, James Monroe was unopposed and was reelected. In the Election of 1828, Andrew Jackson ran against John Quincy Adams and won. 1830 Peter Cooper built the first American made steam locomotive. Joseph Smith founded the Mormon Church called the Latterday Saints. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 gave Jackson the authority to offer Native American nations land west of the Mississippi in exchange for the land east of the Mississippi. 1831 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia was a Supreme Court case in which the Supreme Court refused to prevent Georgia from forcing the Cherokees to give up their land. 1832 Worcester v. Georgia was a Supreme Court case in which the Supreme Court said that Georgia's laws "can have no force" in Cherokee territory. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek stated that the Choctaw Nation would be moved west, guarded by US soldiers. A tariff was passed. It upset South Carolina, which said it would secede from the Union if the law was passed. The government used force to control South Carolina. In the Election of 1832, Jackson ran against Henry Clay. Jackson was reelected. Nicholas Biddle got the Second Bank of America's charter renewed by Congress. 1833 Congress allowed the government to collect taxes by force if necessary in South Carolina. A compromise bill was passed. Slavery was banned in all British colonies. William Lloyd Garrison launched an abolitionist newspaper called the Liberator. Santa Anna became the president of Mexico. 1836 The charter of the Second Bank ran out. It ceased to exist. In the Election of 1836, Martin Van Buren ran against William Henry Harrison. Van Buren won. Mary Lyon opened up the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in Massachussets. It was the first college for girls in the United States. Texas declared its independance from Mexico. 1837 The Panic of 1837 occured. Due to an economic crisis in Britain, cotton growers weren't getting much buisness. They didn't make enough money to pay off their loans. This led to hundreds of banks going bankrupt. John Quincy Adams was president. 1840 Martin Van Buren ran against William Henry Harrison and lost. 1841 William Henry Harrison died of pneumonia. His vice president, John Tyler, became president. The Act of Union united Upper and Lower Canada. Emma Willard started the Troy Female Seminary. It was a school in Troy, New York that became a model for girls' schools everywhere. The Spanish governor of Texas gave a land grant to Moses Austin to establish a small colony in Texas. James Monroe Samuel Morse first tested his telegraph. It revolutionized communication, allowing messages to be sent instantly across long distances. 1844 In the Election of 1844, James K. Polk ran against Henry Clay and won. 1845 Famine struck Ireland. Many Irish people died. It caused an increase in Irish immigration to America. Texas became a state. 1846 The Mexican-American War began. Elias Howe patented the sewing machine. It sewed seams in fabric and allowed clothing to efficiently be made in large quantities. 1847 Brigham Young led the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake in Utah after Joseph Smith was murdered. An epidemic of measels killed many Cayuse adults and nearly all their children. 1848 Revolutions broke out in Europe. A women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. It was negotiated by Nicholas Trist. It formally ended the Mexican-American War. In it, Mexico formally recognized the annexation of Texas and ceded a large amount of land, known as the Mexican Cession, to the United States. The Free Soil political party formed. It was a group of anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats that didn't want slavery in any of the territory gained from Mexico. In the election of 1848, Zachary Taylor ran against Martin Van Buren and Lewis Cass and won. James Marshall was building a sawmill near Sacramento when he discovered a gold nugget. This was the beginning of the Gold Rush. About 80,000 people, mostly healthy young men, came to California in search of gold. 1850 American writers published "The Scarlet Letter", "Moby-Dick", "Walden", and "Leaves of Grass". 1851 Henry Clay came up with a plan for the economy. He made a series of proposals to try to resolve the conflicts between North and South. These proposals were turned into the Compromise of 1850. California would be admited to the Union as a free state. The slave trade would be outlawed in Washington DC. Popular sovereignty would be used to decide if slavery would be legal in the states formed from the Mexican Cession. The Fugitive Slave Act allowed slave owners to recapture escaped slaves in the North and bring them back to slavery. Government officials were allowed to arrest anyone accused of being a runaway slave. The Clipper Ship was invented. It was a long and slender boat. It was the fastest ship in the world. The Australian gold rush began. 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published "Uncle Tom's Cabin". It shocked northerners who had been previously unconcerned with slavery. It became an instant best seller in the north. It showed them that slavery was a terrible thing and so much more than a political conflict. It outraged southerners, who said it was propaganda and not a fair look at how most slaves were treated. 1853 The United States bought land from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. After that, America owned all the land that would become the continental United States. 1854 The Kansas-Nebraska Act said that Kansas and Nebraska should be added as territories and that popular soveignty would be used to decide if slavery would be legal in any states that would be formed from the new territories. This undid the Missouri Compromise and led to corruption and violence in the government. Comodore Matthew Perry arrived in Japan with a letter from the President asking for trading rights. Japan was awed at America's powerful ships and guns and when Perry arrived back in the United States, open trade between the two countries began. 1856 In the Election of 1852, Franklin Pierce ran against Winfield Scott and won. In the Election of 1856, James Buchanan ran against John C. Frémont and Millard Fillmore. Buchanan won. 1857 Soldiers in India revolted against the British. 1858 The British government took control of India. 1860 In the Election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln ran against Stephen Douglas, John Bell, and John Beckingridge and won. Charles Dickens published "Great Expectations". South Carolina seceded from the Union. 1859 John Brown attacked Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He wanted to take guns to help free slaves. He was captured by Colonel Robert E. Lee. He was tried and hanged for murder. Dred Scott, a slave, sued Sandford, an Army doctor. The doctor and Scott had lived for a long time in Illinois and Wisconsin. Slavery is illegal in both places. Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed he was free because he had been living in a place where slavery was illegal. The Supreme Court ruled that Scott was not free for two reasons. One, Scott had no right to sue because African Americans were not citizens. Two, living in free territory did not make him free. Also, it said that Congress didn't have the right to prohibit slavery anywhere. It said that slaves were property and outlawing slavery interfered with property rights. It said that the Missouri Compromise was unconsitutional. The Whig party split into Whigs and Republicans (antislavery). New York bans slavery. Andrew Jackson was president. 1829 Martin Van Buren was president. William Henry Harrison was president for less than a month John Tyler was president. James K. Polk was president. 1849 Zachary Taylor was president Millard Fillmore was president Franklin Pierce was president James Buchanan was president 1861 Utah became a territory of America. Achievements:Full transcript
Had to contend with the First Seminole War.
Made significant territorial additions. Achievements:
Made treaties of reciprocity with many nations. Achievements:
Stood strong when South Carolina rebelled and said he would use force(military) if necessary.
Survived an assassination attempt in 1835. Achievements:
Was able to make peace before fighting began between Canada and America.
Defeated the Seminoles in the Second Seminole War in 1852. Achievements:
Established a legal system.
Settled land disputes.
Managed Indian affairs.
Took command of the Northwest forces in the War of 1812.
Helped negotiate the Spring Wells Treaty in 1815. Achievements:
First non elected president. Achievements:
Defeated Mexican troops in 1847 Achievements:
Believed in preserving the union. Achievements:
Supported the Kansas-Nebraska act in 1854 which stated that popular sovereignty would be used to determine if slavery would be legal in the two new territories.
Gadsden Purchase in 1853.
The Ostend Manifesto stated that if Spain did not sell Cuba to the United States , the US may fight to get it. Achievements:
Last pre-Cival War President.
Kansas was admitted as a state in 1861 as a free state, but Buchanan wanted it to be a slave state.
Abolitionist, but Dred Scott occured at the start of his presidency.
Panic of 1857.
Right before he left office, two states formed the Confederate States of America. However, Buchanan did nothing. Works Cited Davidson, James West., and Michael B. Stoff. Prentice Hall America, History of Our Nation: Beginnings through 1877. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
American History From About. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://americanhistory.about.com>. 1817 Achievements:
Supported the Compromise of 1850, which delayed the Civil War 11 years.
His support of the Fugitive Slave Act made the Whig Party split in half and ruined his political career.
California added as a state.
Utah and New Mexico territories created.
Opened trade with Japan by sending Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan to create the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854.