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Copy of Behaviorism

History and Philosophy of Psychology Presentation
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on 19 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Behaviorism

Azwanie
Shamila
Farhana
Az Athirah BEHAVIORISM Prominent SCHOLARS BeHaViOrIsM JOHN B WATSON JOHN B. WATSON B. F. SKINNER 1 2 3 Classical Conditioning Behaviorist Timeline Contents Operant Conditioning Islamic Views on Classical Conditioning Islamic Views on Operant Conditioning 1879 Psychoanalysis BEHAVIORISM 2 4 5 Structuralism Functionalism 1896 3 1910 1920 5 Humanistic 1960 The Founder of Behaviorism IVAN PAVLOV Operant Conditioning 4 Modeling-BOBO DOLL Albert Bandura Behaviorist's Views IVAN PAVLOV Born on 14 September 1849
In Russia
Has medical degree
Later study physiology in German
Before psychology he spent studying the digestive system VIDEO RECAP nurture = determining human and
animal
behavior. reflexes, stimulus-response associations
reinforcement
excluding
entities like desires and
goals VIEWS AnCiEnt EgYpT AnCiEnT GrEEk 1 2 3 4 Middle AGE MoDeRn PsyCholOgy
interested in stimuli and response 1920 on 11 month-old infant named Albert Little Albert CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Unconditioned Response (UCR) CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) BF SKINNER OPERANT CONDITIONING Father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect. 

Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect.

Reinforcement-->behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (strengthened).

Behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (weakened). REINFORCERS TWO TYPES OF RESPONSES PUNISHERS ALBERT BANDURA SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY VIDEO RECAP THE ACCEPTANCE & REJECTION FROM ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE BEHAVIORISM IN ISLAM HUMAN NATURE Islam insisted that men is determined by their level of iman

Soul plays important role in development of men’s behavior.
E.G: dhizkir, recitation of quran, prayer

Concept of Fitrah by prophet (SAW) HUMAN LEARNING Behaviorism views men’s behavior determined by stimulus-responses.

They also believe that men’s behavior resulted of reinforcement and punishment.

Behaviorist believes modelling is most appropriate to concept of human learning.

BUT,

Islam agreed with the concept of stimulus-responses

The application is not contradict with Islamic aqidah WESTERN VIEW - Naturalistic
- Men as machine that respond to conditioning
- Men are not responsible for own action
- Behavior is manipulative ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE BEHAVIORIST IN ISLAMIC VIEWS To reiterate behaviorism seeks to identify observable, measurable laws that could explain all of human behavior. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING From a general Islamic perspective, classical conditioning can be an atheistic mazhab in
terms of `aqidah.
Watson for instance rejected the concept of religion, hereafter, moral and love as the axis
of ‘Aqidah or creed. IBN SINA Operant conditioning in Islamic View
Ibn Sina believes that the association between unconditioned and neutral stimulus must be kept in memory before it can become a conditioned stimulus (classical conditioning).
His examples:

how seeing food (without even eating it) is pleasurable and seeing sticks (without even been beaten by it) is painful Ibn Sina also suggested that a person can feel disgusted
(a conditioned response) with yellow honey (a conditioned stimulus) if
he associates its color with yellow bile (neutral stimulus). AL-GHAZALI

He went a step further by giving example of what is now known as Pavlovian From a general Islamic perspective, operant conditioning also can be an atheistic mazhab in terms of `aqidah.

Skinner, as quoted by Badri (1979), said that behaviour we called right or wrong (which Muslims believe as halal and haram) are nothing more than unforeseen event of responses towards immediate and tangible rewards and punishments, and have nothing to do with the concepts of good and bad.

In other words, our akhlaq, our `ibadah, and even our tawhid are just illusions.


Even when punishments are practiced in Islamic tradition, they are usually administered to those who really understand his or her wrongdoings.

For instance:

beating the children who do not perform prayer
Contemporary operant conditioning theory of reinforcement cannot be applied to Muslims with high level of iman. For a Muslim, just by having faith that he or she will receive rewards, jannah (paradise), or Allah pleasure can be a positive reinforcer. AL-GHAZALI THANK YOU HuMaN naTuRe 1. seek pleasant feelings

2. avoid unpleasant stimuli. Classical Conditioning Social Cognitive Theory Islamic Views on Social Cognitive Theory learning in terms of observable behavior
(discard mental events) man = mechanical environment events behaviors Generalized to other furry objects increase the probability of
a behavior being repeated. positive or negative decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Three major points Model / Modelling Efficacy understanding the reason punishment STIMULI DELAYED INTANGIBLE Companion of Prophets will self-select and self-administer if they did wrong Role of :
cognitive factor
soul factor stimuli are rewarding or punishing enough. jannah rewards nar punishment punishment reinforcement Western psychology
Abdul Aziz (1997) al-targhib
(making people
feel good) should be
prioritised before al-tarhib (making people feel fear)
when promoting Islam" MUAZ Self-Regulation initiated,
monitored
and evaluated
by the
individual. is what allows a person to control behavior when confront with externally imposed stimuli. ISLAMIC VIEW TOWARDS
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY PROPHET MUHAMMAD Asiah
(wife of pharoah) Caliph Umar r.a Qudwah Hasanah
( a good role model) superior morality good habits noble & gentle
feeling embraced Islam due to presence of others' behavior which was his sister's recitation of Quran. worshiped Allah but remained obedient to the pharoah
(her husband) stimulus generalization without IMAN and SOUL, this kind of learning could not taken place. Children and adults analyze their learning by imitating others' behaviors, observing others. social learning theory


social cognitive theory blends behaviorism & cognitive process to explain how people learn. An individual's confidence in his/her ability to successfully perform a particular task. A model
can help you
believe on "what you can" and "what you think you can". performing adultery (zina) THEREFORE... Accept the application not the principles of the behaviorism Did not reject the Western's concept TOTALLY The existence of soul
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