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Transcript of Pearl Harbor
Leading Up to the Attack
The Day of the Attack
2 waves, first one at 7:53 AM and second one at 8:55 AM
First wave had along board 49 high altitude bombers, 51 dive bombers, 40 torpedo planes, and 43 fighters
Second wave carried 35 fighters, 78 dive bombers, and 54 altitude bombers
Many citizens rushed to the hospital after the second attack
Why did Japan Attack?
- To draw the U.S. into the war
- Hawaii's isolation would help carry out an effective surprise attack
- The U.S. embargoes gave Japan a sense of urgency and a surprise attack would leave Roosevelt in a weakened position on embargoes
- To neutralize American naval power in the Pacific, thus removing it from influencing operations against American, British, and Dutch colonies to the south.
- Japan relied on and was interested in the expansion to the East Indies.
- Japan dreamed of having an empire in Asia
Invasion of Manchuria
- September 19, 1931 - Manchuria (Northeast China) was invaded by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan
- A puppet state or Manchukuo was established
- Japan continued its expansion in China over the next decade
- War broke out between China and Japan in 1937 (Second Sino-Japanese War)
Mukden Incident of 1931
By Manon De Vos, Lilly Valente, and Liam Borner
The Effect of the Attack
- A section of Japanese owned railway track was bombed near the Chinese city of Mukden
- Chinese nationalists were blamed
- Speculations that Japanese army officers planted the bombing for further military action
- Lead to the conquest of Manchuria and the Japanese army's control of the region
Japanese soldiers during the Mukden Incident
The Kwantung Army
- 1940 - Japanese invasion of French Indochina
- U.S. embargoes all oil exports
- Japan was planning an attack on the "Southern Resource Area" to add it to the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
About 2,400 dead, 188 destroyed planes and a crippled Pacific Fleet that included 8 damaged or destroyed battleships.
The Japanese managed to destroy nearly 20 American naval vessels, including eight enormous battleships, and almost 200 airplanes.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan the day after the attack and Congress approved with one dissenting vote.
Three days after the attack, Japanese allies Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States.
The United States finally joined WWII after almost two years
Lend-Lease Policy was passed and allowed Roosevelt to become less neutral
Doris "Dorie" Miller- received a Navy Cross because of his bravery on the day of the attack. He shot down many enemy planes with a machine gun
Doris Miller being awarded with the Navy Cross
Marine Corporal E.C. Nightingale was aboard the Arizona that fateful Sunday morning. He shared this about his experience, "At approximately eight o'clock on the morning of December 7, 1941, I was leaving the breakfast table when the ship's siren for air defense sounded. Having no anti-aircraft battle station, I paid little attention to it. Suddenly I heard an explosion. I ran to the port door leading to the quarterdeck and saw a bomb strike a barge of some sort alongside the NEVADA, or in that vicinity."
July 1941 - IJN headquarters informed Hirohito that there was a shortage of reserve bunker oil
August 1941 - Japanese prime minister Fumimaro Konoe proposed a summit. No meeting was held because Roosevelt said that Japan must leave China.
September 6, 1941 - Japanese leaders met to consider attack plans prepared by Imperial General Headquarters at the second Imperial Conference.
Prime Minister Konoe argued for more negotiations, while there were multiple military leaders who urged swift military actions against American and European colonies in Southeast Asia and Hawaii.
November 3, 1941 - Nagano presented a complete plan for the attack on Pearl Harbor to Hirohito.
November 5, 1941 - Hirohito approved and planned for a war against the United States, Great Britain, and Holland at the Imperial Conference.
The following weeks - new Prime Minister Tojo's military regime offered a final deal to the United States. They offered to leave only Indochina, but in return for large American economic aid.
November 30, 1941 - Prince Nobuhito Takamatsu wanted to avoid war, while the Emperor was reassured that war would be successful.
December 1, 1941 - Hirohito finally approved a "war against United States, Great Britain and Holland", and he planned to start off the war with a surprise attack on the US Pacific Fleet at its main forward base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
Another man from the attack was Dale Gano who saw the attack from his army ship, '"A very loud explosion rattled our windows. We rushed outside to see a string of airplanes in a shallow dive toward the ships at the end of our peninsula. We could see red anti-aircraft tracer shells floating up toward the lead aircraft. I could see the "Rising-Sun" emblem that decorated the side of the aircraft which identified them as Japanese. My wife and her friends who lived nearby went up into the hills to hide in a cave and I caught a boat to Ford Island. On the way over I saw a large flight of Japanese aircraft fly over at a high altitude. I saw sunken U.S. Navy ships on both sides of Ford Island burning furiously
As you can see this attack was completely unprepared for and caught so many people off guard.
This shows how violent this attack was and how/why it made history.