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Lifestyle factors that can affect your health and fitness in

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Kirstie Bailes

on 11 February 2016

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Transcript of Lifestyle factors that can affect your health and fitness in

Lifestyle factors that can affect your health and fitness in the public services.
Kirstie Bailes
Smoking
Smoking is one of the biggest causes of death and illness in the UK.

Every year around 100,000 people in the UK die from smoking, with many more living with debilitating smoking-related illnesses.

Smoking increases your risk of developing more than 50 serious health conditions. Some may be fatal and others can cause irreversible long-term damage to your health.
Smoking damages your heart and your blood circulation, increasing your risk of developing conditions such as:
•coronary heart disease
•heart attack
•stroke
•peripheral vascular disease (damaged blood vessels)
•cerebrovascular disease (damaged arteries that supply blood to your brain)

Smoking also damages your lungs, leading to conditions such as:
•chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which incorporates bronchitis and emphysema
•pneumonia

Drugs (Part 1)
How can drugs affect you health?

Drugs can affect both you physical and mental health, this means that you are more than likely to suffer in any way possible with either life long conditions or psychological issue.

Drugs have both long term and short term effects on your body.
Short term conditions range from you feeling relaxed and happy, but sometimes makes people feel lethargic, very anxious and paranoid, and even psychotic.

The long term affects range from, severe anxiety to depression. Psychoactive drugs may cause you ongoing mental health problems. It is not clear why this happens to some people and not others. It may be that using a drug has triggered a mental illness you didn’t know you had, or the drug changes the way a certain chemical affects your brain functions.
Describe the lifestyle factors that can affect health.
Physical activity.
Physical activity can affect you health in many ways, first of all if you do a lot of physical activity, you improve your cardiovascular system, this means that it will decrease your chances of getting:
1. Coronary Heart Disease
2. Strokes
3. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
4. Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)

the guidelines for Physical Activity are that you do 150 minutes of moderate activity per week, in addition to doing 2 bone and muscle strengthening sessions. This national guideline is for adults aged 19-64.
Diet
Having a balanced diet is key for a healthy lifestyle. If you do have a good diet, you are more likely to have twice as much energy as someone who eats a poor diet, this means that you are more alert and aware of what you are doing and you can reach your full potential., whereas if you have a poor diet, you can develop type 2 diabetes, you can also get coronary heart disease from eatiing too much fatty foods.

To make sure that we eat the right things and the right amount of them, we have the eat well plate and the five-a-day guideline. The eat well plate is there to show you what percent of a certain food your diet should consist of, and the five a day shows you how you can eat your five a day and gives you ideas of what types of foods you can eat to do this.

On food packages, we also have the RDA, this is the recommended daily amount of certain elements in foods that we eat, so for example the RDA for fat in the diets are:
•The average man should aim to have no more than 30g of saturated fat a day.
•The average woman should aim to have no more than 20g of saturated fat a day.
•Children should have less.

If you are going to be applying for the public services, you have to be moderately fit, so if you do not have a great track record of physical fitness, you are going to struggle when it comes down to the physical tests, this means that you need to get your cardiovascular system up to the standards that is needed before applying as you are more than likely to struggle with what they are asking you to do.

Also if you are taken through to the next stage along with another person who is good at physical activity, they are more than likely to pick that person over you as they can perform better and they are more prepared for the job.
(M3)
Explain the effects of identified lifestyle factors on health and fitness, when applying for public service and long-term employment
(D2)
Evaluate the effects of identified lifestyle factors on health and fitness, when applying for public service and long-term employment
Physical activity (Part 2)
How can lack of physical activity lead to Coronary Heart Disease?

Coronary Heart Disease is a condition in which the coronary arteries (the major blood vessels that supply the heart with blood) get clogged up with deposits of cholesterol. These deposits are called plaques.

Cholesterol is a fatty substance known as a lipid and is vital for the normal functioning of the body. It's mainly made by the liver, but can also be found in some foods.

If you eat foods that have a high fat percentage and then do no physical activity to burn this off, this is when the cholesterol builds up and clogs up the hearts coronary arteries and causes major risk of having heart attacks.

How can lack of Physical activity lead to Strokes?

Haemorrhagic strokes are the strokes that are brought on by lack of exercise and they are less common than ischaemic strokes (which are a blood clot that blocks the oxygen supply to the brain) . They occur when a blood vessel within the skull bursts and bleeds into and around the brain.

The main cause of haemorrhagic stroke is high blood pressure, which can weaken the arteries in the brain and make them prone to split or rupture.

Things that increase the risk of high blood pressure include:
•being overweight or obese
•drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
•smoking
•a lack of exercise
•stress, which may cause a temporary rise in blood pressure.

So if you are proned to lack of exercise, you need to think about the consequences of not doing any physical exercise.

How can lack of physical exercise lead to hypertension?

if you lack in physical exercise, you are more than likely to develop high blood pressure, this means that you are at risk of having a stroke or heart attack, this then means that you are at risk of basically dying .

to decrease the chances of getting hypertension, you can do 150 minutes of exercise a week, including 2 muscle strenghtening sessions.If you need to lower your blood pressure, aim for 40 minutes of vigorous activity at least 3 to 4 times a week.

This physical exercise can be from walking, jogging, sprinting, cycling and swimming.
Physical activity (Part 3)
How can lack of exercise lead to myocardial Infarctions?

Myocardial infarctions are in the simplist form, a heart attack. Like coronary heart disease, lack of exercise can cause a build up of plaque around the heart, this then leads to the rupture of the plaque and it burts the colonary heart disease and causes the blood clot to cut off the oxygen supply to the heart and it ends up spasming and causing the person pain, this then means that the arteries are blocked and the heart can not work properly.

To reduce the chances of having a myocarial infarction, it is advised that you should aim to do some moderate physical activity on most days of the week for at least 30 minutes - for example, brisk walking, swimming, cycling, dancing, gardening and many more.
How can a poor diet lead to coronary heart disease?

If you eat a poor diet, that consists of only 1 of your 5 a day and therest carbohydrates, salts and fats, then you are more at risk of getting coronary heart disease than a person who eats a well balanced diet and sticks to their 5 a day and the eatwell plate.

coronary heart disease is when you body takes all of the fat and it gathers around the wall of the heart and becones plaque.

Another pointer is that if you dont eat a lot of food throughout the day, your body will then take all of the fat out of meals that you do eat, and it uses that for the energy, and if you do not exercise and your body is absorbing the fat, then you are more than likely to become overweight too.
How can a poor diet lead to type two diabetes?

Type two diabetes is the type that you have to watch what you are eating, and check your sugar levels, if you do not check your blood sugar levels before you eat, there is a likelyhood that you will suffer the consequences and possibly end up in a diabetic comba, if you eat all of the wrong foods, you are putting yourself under massive risks.

You're more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you're overweight or obese (with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more).

In particular, fat around your tummy (abdomen) increases your risk. This is because it releases chemicals that can upset the body's cardiovascular and metabolic systems.

This increases your risk of developing a number of serious conditions, including coronary heart disease, stroke and some types of cancer.

Measuring your waist is a quick way of assessing your diabetes risk. This is a measure of abdominal obesity, which is a particularly high-risk form of obesity.

Women have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes if their waist measures 80cm (31.5 inches) or more. Asian men with a waist size of 89cm (35 inches) or over have a higher risk, as do white or black men with a waist size of 94cm (37 inches) or over.



Diet (part 2)
How can drugs cause Anxiety?

Chemicals in drugs like cocaine, marijuana, hallucinogens, and prescription anti-seizure and pain-relieving medications, as well as alcohol and even seemingly harmless substances like caffeine, can affect the way the brain functions and cause anxiety symptoms, including:
•Constant worry and nervousness
•Feeling of impending disaster or something bad happening
•Panic, even feeling like you are dying
•Insomnia and other sleep problems
•Memory loss and problems with concentration

•Physical symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea, fast heart rate, sweating, and difficulty breathing
Not only can these symptoms occur while using drugs, they may also last for weeks after the drug use has stopped. This is a difficult cycle to break because the anxiety, depression, and other symptoms that people feel when the drug wears off just make them want to use it again. They begin "treating" the anxiety problems that result from substance abuse with more substance abuse.

How can drugs cause Paranoia?

Paranoia is a mental disorder that is characterised by dilusions (an idiosyncratic belief or impression maintained despite being contradicted by reality or rational argument, typically as a symptom of mental disorder.) and it is where you are thinking that something bad is always going to happen to you, even though ou are uinder no aposed threat.
Guidlines on Drugs

There are no guidlines to using drugs in this country, but there is a policy put in place, this policy is Public Health Outcomes Framework 2013 to 2016 and this policy is for Drug misuse and dependency, this policy is put into place so tht people are aware of what the law is against the misuse and dependancy of both legal and illegal drugs are.
Drugs (Part 2)
How can smoking cause coronary heart disease?

Smoking increass your risk of blood clots. Other chemicals in cigarette smoke can damage the lining of your coronary arteries, leading to furring of the arteries. If you smoke, you increase your risk of developing heart disease by 24%.

Smoking is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Both nicotine and carbon monoxide (from the smoke) put a strain on the heart by making it work faster. They also increase your risk of blood clots.
Smoking (Part 2)
How can smoking cause COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder)?

The main cause of COPD is smoking. The likelihood of developing COPD increases the more you smoke and the longer you've been smoking. This is because smoking irritates and inflames the lungs, which results in scarring.

Over many years, the inflammation leads to permanent changes in the lung. The walls of the airways thicken and more mucus is produced. Damage to the delicate walls of the air sacs in the lungs causes emphysema and the lungs lose their normal elasticity. The smaller airways also become scarred and narrowed. These changes cause the symptoms of breathlessness, cough and phlegm associated with COPD.

Some cases of COPD are caused by fumes, dust, air pollution and genetic disorders, but these are rarer.

How can smoking lead to Pneumonia?

Aspiration pneumonia

Rarely, pneumonia can be caused by breathing in:
•vomit
•a foreign object, such as a peanut
•a harmful substance, such as smoke or a chemical

The object or substance inhaled causes irritation in the lungs or damages them. This is called aspiration pneumonia.

Guidelines and policies on smoking.

There is a policy on smoking and this is 2010 to 2015 government policy: smoking, this is basically outlines the bans that are in force against smoking in public places, it also states that you are allowed to use public safe e-cigarettes as a substitute.
Intake of too much alcohol can lead to liver cirrhosis, it can also lead to an unhealthy addictions and it can become life dependant with some people, it also slows down the CNS (central nervous system) and can lead to depression and dehydration aswell as liver cirrhosis.


How can alcohol consumption lead to liver cirrhosis?

With the exception of the brain, the liver is the most complex organ in the body. Its functions include:
•filtering toxins from the blood
•aiding digestion of food
•regulating blood sugar and cholesterol levels
•helping fight infection and disease

The liver is very resilient and capable of regenerating itself. Each time your liver filters alcohol, some of the liver cells die.

The liver can develop new cells, but prolonged alcohol misuse (drinking too much) over many years can reduce its ability to regenerate. This can result in serious and permanent damage to your liver.

ARLD is very common in the UK – the number of people with the condition has been increasing over the last few decades as a result of increasing levels of alcohol misuse.

Guidelines for Alcohol

The new guidelines for alcohol is that both men and women are to drink 14 units of alcohol per week, they are to spead the units over at least 3 days, and that pregnant women should not drink at all.
(P4)
Alcohol Consumption
How can alcohol consumption lead top depression?

If you drink heavily and regularly you’re likely to develop some symptoms of depression. It’s that good old brain chemistry at work again. Regular drinking lowers the levels of serotonin in your brain – a chemical that helps to regulate your mood.

Stress
Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.

Stress can lead to many people not eating or overeating, this tincreases your chance of becoming very fatigue and unmotivated.

Hypertensions are common with stress as it increases your blood pressure, hyperternsions are associated with all heart conditions ranging from angina to full on heart attacks. Loss of hair is also a factor of stress.

Stress can also lead to lack of sleep which means your sleep quality is decreases and you become very agitated and emoptional.
How can Stress lead to hypertensions?

Where there is no specific cause, high blood pressure is referred to by doctors as primary or essential hypertension. this means that if you become stressed, your blood pressure rises, and with that you are more than likely to have a hypertension than a person who was perfectly normal feel was.
How can stress lead to hair loss

Stress can cause many conditions that lead to hair loss. These include: Alopecia Areata - Sudden loss of large clumps of hair in areas around your scalp. Telogen Effluvium (A telogen effluvium is when some stress causes hair roots to be pushed prematurely into the resting state. Telogen effluvium can be acute or chronic. If there is some "shock to the system", as many as 70% of the scalp hairs are then shed in large numbers about 2 months after the "shock".) - This is a condition where more hairs than normal prepare to fall out.
Personal Hygiene
Having poor personal hygiene is reallly bad for both your health and others around you.

Poor personal hygiene can cause many things to happen to your body such as if you do not wash you get a distinctive odour that make people want to be sick, you will also gain spots as there will be a build up of dirt and oils in your pores on your face and they will become infected, this is what causes spots.

You will gain a poor immune system from poor personal hygiene as the bacteria is always on your body sio therefore you are more tghan likely to always have bacteria on yourdy, this will then mutate over time if you do not wash, which is wehat causes you to become ill.
Physical activity (Part 4)
How is physical activity linked to a great performance level?

Physical activity can lead to a great performamnce level as you have trained your cardiovascular system to keep going even when you dont want to, this means that you have to correct mindset to be able to get into a job that requires a lot of physical activity such as the Army, in the Army you have to be able to run for longer than average streches of land, this run tests your aerobic capacity.
Poor personal hygiene can cause you to become very self concious and anxious about yourself and how you are portrayed by others, this can then lead to an emotional or nervous break down
How can poor personal hygiene cause anxiety?

it causes anxiety because the individual becomes very self concious of how they come across to other people, anxiety may also lead to the individual being an outcast of society as they feel that they are not good enough to present themselves in public areas.

Anxiety of the individual may cause them to become depressed and not want anybodies help, they may then spiral out of control, leading to lonfg term depression.
How can a good diet lead to a great outcome of a person?

If you have a good diet, then you are more than likely be able to carry out duties that are required of you, so for example in the Navy when you apply, if you have a poor diet and it comes to the recruitment tests, you are going to fail them as you will not have the energy in you to be able to carry out thoses duties, also you have to maintain a certain weight frame, ansd a poor diet can lead to weight gain as you can gain fat cells and a poor diet can lead to them multiplying, whereas if you have a good diet, you are going to be able to get rid of them easier.


Diet (Part 3)
How can the use of drugs lower ones performance levels?
Using drugs can affect the way that an individual performs, this means that drugs can lower their ability to carry out duties in the public services, you are also likely to lack teamwork skills due to your aggresive attitude, this could consist of violent outburst or verbal abuse.
How can smoking affect a persons performance?
For a person that smokes, it lacks their chances of making it through the process of application, as smoking decreases their aerobic capacity, this means that they are unable to run for longer distances.

for a person thatv smokes, they become fatique quickly, this means that thery will not have the correct mindset to carry out any duties that require a long period of time.
How can alcohol consumption affect a person s performance?
Usage of alcohol slows down the brains activity and you have a decrease in time to react, so if you drink and then get into a fight, you are mnore than likely to lose as you have a slower reaction rate, you will also suffer from lack of coordination, this is why drunk people can not walk in a straight line and constantly fall over

when you drink alcohol, there is a build up of lactic acid, and this will cause muscle soreness, it also lowers your activity rate, so this means that you cant reach your full potential.
How can stress affect a persons performance?
Stress can lead to a person having no energy as they are always worrying about could go wrong. They also become aggresive and isolate themselves from the outside world.

Stress can also lead to a breakdown, if they become stressed on the job, then they are likely to break down while on the job, and the public services will not stand for that.
How can poor personal hygiene affect a persons performance?
Poor personal hygiene can lead to low self esteem which also means that you do not believe in you ability to do well.

It also causes lack of mativation in a person as they do not want to do anything as they feel too ashamed of themselves.

How do all of the factors contribute to the entry of public services?
Physical activity

Physical activity plays a key role in everyday life and in the public services, you have to be physically and mentally for to be able to join the public services, because if you are not, then there is no point in applying as there is always someoe who is physically fit and read and they will chose them over you.

If you have a bad physical health and activity and you are in the public services, you will not be able to keep up with all the others and you will be dismissed form your duties and told to find a more suitable job for your physical activity level.
Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol consumption can refrain you from becoming a member of the public services as you are going against what they stand for.

Drnking alcohol cn cause yourself and the co-workers around you a lot of issues, this means that if you are constantly abusing alcohol, then you are going to leadely and jobless life, reason being that the public services are not very accepting with members that constantly use drink as a result of a dispute or issue that you may have.

Stress

Stress can lead to a person having no energy as they are always worrying about could go wrong. They also become aggresive and isolate themselves from the outside world.

Stress can also lead to a breakdown, if they become stressed on the job, then they are likely to break down while on the job, and the public services will not stand for that, this means that a person who gets stssed easily is not really capable of doing the job required.
Personal hygiene

Poor personal hygiene can lead to low self esteem which also means that you do not believe in you ability to do well.

It also causes lack of mativation in a person as they do not want to do anything as they feel too ashamed of themselves.

If a member of the public services was to go oput on pa without washing or keeping themselves clean, then the members of the public will avoid them and that will portray the public services in a negative light and this then means that the public servicet hat they are a part of has a bad reputaion among the public.
Drugs

Using drugs can affect the way that an individual performs, this means that drugs can lower their ability to carry out duties in the public services, you are also likely to lack teamwork skills due to your aggresive attitude, this could consist of violent outburst or verbal abuse.

If a member of the public sservices was using drs, this would mean that they are not upkeeping the law that they are enforcing, which then means that people will think they can go against the law and it will all spiral out of control until it all hits rock bottom.
Smoking

For a person that smokes, it lacks their chances of making it through the process of application, as smoking decreases their aerobic capacity, this means that they are unable to run for longer distances, this means that you as a person can not achieve the goal you wanted and that you do not have the same lung capacity as a normal healthy person has.

For a person thatv smokes, they become fatique quickly, this means that thery will not have the correct mindset to carry out any duties that require a long period of time.
Diet

if you as a person has a poor diet, you are more than likely to put weight and your body will produce more fat cells than an average person would.

For the public services, you have to be able to maintain a healthy and steady weight, but if you have a poor diet, so KFC or Mc Donalds every night, then you are going to be putting the weight on; this will affect your performance side of the job too.
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