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Chapter 4-Exploring diversity of matter using separation tec

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banana ljh

on 3 September 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 4-Exploring diversity of matter using separation tec

Chapter 4-Exploring diversity of matter using separation techniques
Magnetic Attraction


Magnetic attraction make use of the fact that only some attracted to magnets . Magnetic attraction is used to separate magnetic material from non-magnetic material.

Experiment can be made by mixing two small dishes of sand iron filling together . Place a magnet in the mixture . And we can separate the iron filling from the sand as the iron filling will attract to the magnet as iron is a magnetic material . This is all about the separation of sand and iron filling using magnetic attraction.
Filtration


Filtration is the technique used to separate an insoluble solid from the liquid in a liquid-solid mixture. Filtration makes use of the fact that,in a suspension insoluble solids are of a larger size than liquid particles. We can use filtration to separate insoluble solid from a suspension.

Application of filtration

There are many applications of filtration in our everyday lives and in the industrial world.
Example: Coffee maker
Filtration
Water treatment

Filtration is a cost-saving technique for producing potable water compared to other methods

Some parts of our body also use filtration to control the types of substances entering and leaving our body.
Example:Our kidneys function as a filter for our blood.
Evaporation
Evaporation makes use of the fact that the solvent in a solution can vaporise at any temperature, leaving behind a residue of the solid that was dissolved in the liquid.

Evaporation is the technique used to separate dissolved solids from a solid-liquid mixture.

Application of evaporation

Evaporation is used to obtain salt from seawater.We use common salt as a food preservative or as seasoning in dishes.
Distillation

The two main processes involved in this technique are vaporisation and condensation.

Technique
1) Water from the ground evaporates as water vapour.
2) Water vapour formed comes into contact with the cool underside of the plastic sheet and condenses on the plastic sheet.
3) The condensed water then collects into the cup.

Pure water can be obtained from a solid-liquid or a liquid-liquid mkixture through distillation.
Paper Chromatography

Paper chromatography is the technique used to separate small amounts of substances especially pigments from mixtures based on the different solubilities of the components in a particular solvent

Substances move at different rates up the chromatography paper.Substacnes that are more soluble in a solvent will move faster than substances that are less soluble.

Application of paper chromatography

-Identify the contents of a mixture
-Test the purity of a substance

We can use paper chromatography to identify food colouring.Paper chromatography can be used to ensure that the harmful colouring are not used in the food.We can use paper chromatography to find out if a particular written document is forged.

Basically,paper chromatography is used to separate a mixture depends on the physical properties of the substances present in the mixture and substances to be obtained from the mixture.
Microfiltration
In order to have clean water to drink, we need to remove the small particles from the water.

In this system, the membrane is needed to be used as the filter. Thus membrane has tiny pores that trap suspended solids and most disease-causing micro-organisms.

Water obtained from microfiltration contains mainly dissolved salts and molecules.
Reverse Osmosis
Reverse osmosis is carried out on treated used water to remove

1) Disease-causing micro-organism 2) Dissolved salt 3) Chemical molecules from the water
Technique

1) the water obtained from microfiltration is pumped at high pressure through a special membrane.

2) the pores of the membrane are so small that only very small particles can pass through. Disease-causing micro-organisms and etc. are too big to pass through the membrane.

3) Water obtained from reverse osmosis is free from bacteria and virus. It alsotrace amount of dissolved salts and molecules.
Seawater is abundant on the Earth. It is not potable as it high amount of salts. Before seawater can be potable water, it has to be treated in a process call disalination.

Disalination Plants

Disalination removes dissolved salts from the seawater to obtain pure water. Distillation is one of the technique used to carry out disalination. but, distillation is not widely used as it is expensive and requires a lot of energy( in the form of heat)

1) Seawater is heated in a boiling chamber to produce steam.

2) The team condenses as it passes through the condenser.

3) Water is then collected as a distillate.
Disalination
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