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Boreal Forest - Taiga
Transcript of Boreal Forest - Taiga
Hannah Newkirk Boreal Forest - Taiga Taiga Weather & Climate Abiotic Factors Niche The Boreal forest is the world's largest land-based biome. Spreading over continents and covering many countries, the Boreal plays a significant role in the planet's biodiversity and even its climate. The boreal represents 29% of the world's forest cover. The boreal covers most of inland Canada and Alaska, most of Sweden, Finland and inland Norway, much of Russia, and the northern parts of Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Japan. The taiga climate is for the most part dominated by cold arctic air. Exceptionally cold winds bring bitterly cold air from the Arctic Circle. The temperatures fall even more on clear nights when there is no cloud cover. Because of earth's tilt, the taiga is turned away from the sun in the winter. Less of the sun's radiation reaches the ground to warm it up.Winter, with it's freezing cold temperatures, lasts for six to seven months. Summer is a rainy, hot and short season in the taiga. Fall is the shortest season
for taiga. Spring brings flowers, the frozen ponds melt, and the animals come For weather, the temperature is -65° F to 70°F (-54 to 21° C). For half of the year, the average temperature is below freezing. In the winter
the average air temperature is warmer than it is for tundra, which lies north of the taiga.out from hibernation. A moose's niche is to be a herbivore living in
conditions ranging from mountains to wetlands,
mainly in Northern America. Lynx are specialized hunters and can survive only where there are adequate
snowshoe hare populations. Lynx are also known to eat mice and red squirrels.
They require different forest types, including young forests with thick
vegetation for hunting snowshoe hares and older forests with good cover
for their dens. Niche Paper birch can be an important winter food for many forest animals
including deer and moose. It is also a favorite food of snowshoe hare,
porcupine, and beaver. Many birds will nest in paper birch, including
woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and vireos. The soil of the taiga is similar to that of the tundra's. Because of the harsh temperatures during the winter, some parts of the taiga have permafrost, or a permanently frozen layer of soil. Water from precipitation and melting snow in warmer seasons cannot seep through the permafrost, so the taiga ground remains soft and damp in some parts. Other areas that do not have permafrost have a layer of hard rock that remains close to the surface. Like permafrost, this dense rock prevents water from escaping the surface and, therefore, leaves the soil soggy in the spring and summer seasons. Balsam fir is one of the major food supplies for moose in the winter. Caribou and white tailed deer leave it alone. Red squirrels will eat the male flower buds. Deer, caribou and moose use Balsam fir stands as cover in the winter because the snow is not as deep under them as in hardwood stands. Competition: Predator - Prey: Symbiotic Relationships: The lynx and various members of the weasel family are the most
characteristic of the Boreal Forest. The herbivores on which they feed
include the snowshoe or hare, red squirrel, lemmings, and voles. Keystone Species: The predators stop the prey from overpopulating. The prey stop the producers from overpopulating. Creating a balanced ecosystem. Keystone plants are conifers, like pine, white spriuce, hemlock, and Douglas fir. Keystone animals: The Moose in North America and Eurasian elk in Europe. Mutualism: Algae and Fungi: Fungi decomposes dead animals which
puts nutrients back into the earth. This helps algae to grow stronger.
Algae returns the favor to fungi by creating photosynthesized
food for it so it can keep growing and doing its job. This
cycles and they both help each other. Mutualism: moss growing on a tree. This protects the tree, and makes a house for the moss. Parasitism: Forest Tent Caterpillar and plants. The caterpillars are eating the leaves off of trees and plants and destroying them. Meanwhile, the caterpillars are prospering because they get more food so they can reproduce, while the trees and plants are getting destroyed and dying. Parasitism: Brainworms and caribou. The brainworm eats the brain of the caribou, and the caribou dies Commensalism: Tree and Squirrel. The tree provides bark for the squirrel to dig into so that it can create a safe home to hide from predators while not affecting the tree in any negative ways. Commensalism: Parasitic fungi and trees. The fungi gets food from the decomposing tree, but the tree is not helped nor hurt. Because it's dead. Producers Dahurian Larch:
Found in Russia, Siberia, Sakhalin, and China. It has needle like features. Grows to 18 m. When they lose their leaves in the fall, they turn yellow. Field Thistle:
Leaves: simple, oblong, narrowly lobed with spiny teeth. Widespread throughout North America. 5 united petals, 5 stamens. They bloom in July to early September. Herbivores Mountain Goat:
Creamy whitish, sometimes brown.
Located in The North Americas Rocky Mountains
High mountain vegetation; primarily grasses, mosses, lichens, herbs and tender parts of woody plants.
Weight: Male 57 - 100 kg. Female 40 - 85 kg Omnivores Carnivores Decomposers Scavengers Narwhal: They live in Mainly Arctic seas and bays.
Eats Fish and squid. They can weigh up to 1600 kg. Arctic Hare: Eats twigs, grasses, berries, and leafs. They bury their food. Lives in Eurasian Arctic. They are pure white only their ears are black. Tundra Wolf: Largest living member of their family. They live in Northern Russia and Northern Scandinavia. Polar Bear: weighs 420-500 kg. Primarily seals and walruses; also fish, birds, bird eggs, small mammals, carrion, shellfish, crabs, starfish; sometimes mushrooms, grasses, berries and garbage left behind by humans when other food is not available. Eurasian Badger: Found in Europe, Scandinavia, and russia. Eats earthworms, berries , young rabbits. lynx: eats deer, artic snowhare and other small animals. They are very shy and solitary cats and they like to hunt alone. Russian Mushrooms: Grows in August till November. Lives in Russia, Poland, and Ukraine. Turkey Vulture: They coast for hours, swaying side and side. They are mostly found in Ontario. They commonly dark brown. Earthworm: a tubed shaped snimal that is found in soil. They eat dead trees and leaves. Work Cited: http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/taiga_climate_page.htm