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James Joyce

A short presentation on the life and writing of James Joyce.
by

Luke Schut

on 27 September 2012

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Transcript of James Joyce

James Joyce The young James Joyce Joyce was born February 2, 1882 just outside Dublin, Ireland and was the eldest of 10 surviving siblings

Educated in Jesuit schools Clogowes Wood College and Belvedere College in his youth, he attended University College in Dublin and studied modern languages Early Life Joyce left Ireland to study medicine in Paris but returned to Dublin in 1903 after receiving news of his mother's illness. She passed away in 1904. Joyce left Ireland that year and only visited his native country a few more times over the course of his life

He also met his partner and future wife Nora Barnacle during this last extended stay in Ireland. They married and ended up in Trieste, Italy where they spent most of the next ten years. Leaving Ireland JJC; Chapman 554-55 JJC; Chapman 554-55 Joyce mainly supported his family by teaching English and the charity of friends as his writing never paid particularly well

His first publications were short stories in Irish Homestead magazine before he left Ireland, but his career didn't really start until later.

In Italy, Joyce and his family learned the local dialect, and Joyce began publishing essays in Italian papers and giving lectures on English literature Early Career JJC; Chapman 554-55 Joyce and his family left Italy for Zurich at the start of World War I. The same year also saw Joyce publish a short story collection called Dubliners after a decade of writing

With the help of Ezra Pound, Joyce also successfully published his first novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in serial format London's Egoist magazine in 1916

Finally, 1918 saw Joyce's only play, Exiles, although the play wasn't a notable success Writing and the Great War Ezra Pound persuaded Joyce to move to Paris after the war instead of returning to Italy.

Joyce had begun Ulysses during the war and, in 1922, finally found a publisher after the original serial publication was banned in the US, Great Britain, and Ireland. It was eventually published in novel form in 1922 by American expatriate Sylvia Beach and from 1930 on by a Russian-Jewish emigre named Paul Leon

Joyce also wrote Finnegan's Wake in France. It was published in 1939 and instantly received critical acclaim

Ireland gains its independence from Britain during this time. After the War JJC; Chapman 554-55 World War II forced Joyce and his family to flee France and return to Zurich.

James Joyce passed away on January 13, 1941 in Zurich. World War II Joyce isn't a British writer so much as an Irish writer.

Despite his self-imposed exile from Ireland, Dublin serves as an important background for his work
Ireland and its history and politics play an integral role in his writing. He repeatedly returns to his Irish heritage in his fiction.

He is also often hailed as one of the key figures of the modernist movement Joyce as a Writer This is Joyce's first work, and on the surface it seems to be an example of literary realism as it creates a factual picture of Dublin in Joyce's time

Joyce begins laying the framework of his modernist writing beneath this realist exterior, though. He introduces the idea of epiphany--the moment of realizing something as it truly is--that he explores in his later works

He also introduces the idea of gnomon--a parallelogram with a chunk missing. This becomes symbolic of the narrative of the book as all depictions of reality seem to have a piece missing, sometimes intentionally. This idea plays heavily into Joyce's modernist writing as it challenges the objective view of reality present in realism The Dubliners Mahon 1-5 This work is a semi-autobiographical bildungsroman of Joyce's development as an artist. The story grew out of an earlier story entitled Stephen Hero that Joyce scrapped

Language plays an important role in this novel as the protagonist recognizes its power to evoke powerful ideas and its fluid meanings.

Joyce explores religion, politics, and sexuality through language and from the perspective of a man who grew up in Ireland at a time when the nation was trying to discover its national identity

Joyce also begins using stream of consciousness in this novel, departing from the more realist-type narration in Dubliners. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Mahon 7-16; JJC; Chapman 555 Ulysses is often cited as the quintessential modern novel because it challenges many of the conventions of literary realism as it plays with plot and narration. Joyce explored stream of consciousness more fully with extended inner monologues in this piece.

Ulysses also explores psychoanalysis, especially free association and unconscious desires, moving much of the novel into the labyrinthine interior of the human mind. The psychoanalytic aspects of the novel led to it being banned as obscene in America, though. Ulysses Mahon 41, Chapman 555 Joyce also makes a copious number of extra-textual references in this work, alluding to history, meteorology, day-to-day events, and numerous other extra-textual elements. Some scholars have devoted much of their work simply to gathering and expounding on these references

The novel is also unusual for its time because it gives detailed descriptions of protagonist's thoughts and personalities but little about his physical appearance, moving it further away from realism and into modernism's focus on the interior and how humans perceive the world. Ulysses cont. Mahon 41-42; JJC Joyce had major trouble getting this novel published because it was seen as an obscure or difficult novel
The novel plays with linguistics, Freudian dream theories, and stream of consciousness.

The novel uses the form of a dream to tell its story and delves into much of Irish history, attempting to out Irish identity via dream.

The novel is (in)famous for is unusual linguistic choices as Joyce used many foreign words, portmanteaus, and other unusual linguistic constructs to reflect the often chaotic or nonsensical nature of the dream. However, this language has also given the novel a reputation as a very difficult read. Finnegans Wake JJC JJC; Chapman 554-55 JJC Public Domain image from Wikimedia Public Domain image from Wikimedia Questions? Bloom, Harold. "Introduction." Bloom's BioCritiques: James Joyce. Ed. Harold Bloom. Broomall: Chelsea House Publishers, 2003. 1-2. Print.
Chapman, Raymond "Joyce, James" The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Ed. Tom McArthur. 1992. 554-55. Print.
Foster, Brett. "Biography of James Joyce." Bloom's BioCritiques: James Joyce. Ed. Harold Bloom. Broomall: Chelsea House Publishers, 2003. 4. Print.
Gillespie, Michael Patrick. "James Joyce and the Fabrication of an Irish Identity: An Introduction." European Joyce Studies 11: James Joyce and the Fabrication of an Irish Identity. Ed. Michael Patrick Gillespie. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001. 4-7. Print.
The James Joyce Centre. Ed. Mark Traynor. The James Joyce Centre, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2012.
Mahon, Peter. Joyce: A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Continuum International Publishing, 2009. Print. Works Cited Eminent critic Harold Bloom writes that "no narrative prose fiction in English since Charles Dickens could be judged to equal that sequence [of Joyce's writing] in aesthetic eminence"

Joyce effectively and creatively explores ideas ranging from religion to politics to art in a way that seeks to construct a new understanding and identity.

With the loss of British identity in WWI and the struggle for Irish identity at that time, Joyce is dealing with an important and widespread issue. Harold Bloom and James Joyce Bloom 1 Joyce left Ireland for a number of reasons including an increasing opposition to the Roman Catholic Church and dissatisfaction with the past-centered Gaelic revival occurring in Irish art when he was in his 20s.

Young Joyce wished to escape Ireland's "provincialness, wind-and-piss philosophizing, crookedness, vacuity, and a verbal spouting that reserved sentiment for God and the dead." Irish Identity Foster 4 According to Stephen Hero, protagonist of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and part-time authorial avatar, Irish identity is unstable and ill-defined, allowing the artist to participate in building it.

That said, Joyce's experiences growing up in Ireland give him a unique perspective on religion, politics, and other issues that come in his works.

His understanding of and frustration with his contemporary Ireland led him to write about Ireland while also being an expatriate. Joyce works through Irish identity through his writing. What is Irish Identity? Gillespie 4-7 The gnomon Being Irish sets Joyce apart from the British modernists.

Irish identity is set apart from British identity. Joyce deals with religion, but he deals with Roman Catholicism instead of Britain's Anglicanism.

Ireland is also struggling to find its national identity at this point in time. It is still part of the the British empire when Joyce leaves, although it successfully becomes its own sovereign state in his lifetime. So what does being Irish mean? Joyce's Irish heritage doesn't preclude or override other modernist concerns, however.

As Joyce's works show, he spends considerable time dealing with the human psyche and Freud's ideas of the unconscious mind and free association.

This psychological theme challenges the stuffy morality and propriety of Victorian England as Joyce often delves into sexuality and its implications in his novels.

Psychology also challenges realist depictions of reality by make objective, complete reality impossible in Joyce's novels. Beyond Ireland
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