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The Bialowieza Forest
Transcript of The Bialowieza Forest
Common landscapes are oak-lime-hornbeam on plains of basil morane, riparian forests, marshy landscapes in river valleys, pine forest landscapes on plains of aeolian sands, and many types of trees including oak, maples, pines, and ashes. the forest also includes meadows, fields, and standing water.
Galio Silvatici - Carpinetum is a predominant type of the forest and covers 47% of all forest area.
dead/weakened/old -- or insect killed trees
deciduous oak-linden-hornbeam forest
Rich in nutrients
Kept moist due to high precipitation
European bison inhabit mixed and deciduous forests, with undergrowth and open spaces.
The European bison is an endangered species due to over hunting and habitat loss.
The Bialowieza forest is located north-east central Poland on the border with Belarus
This forest is a Temperate decidious forest
The border of Poland and Belarus runs through the forest allowing a pathway for hikers.
The Bialowieza forest experiences a temperate continental cool climate. Annual precipitation is 641 millimeters and annual temperature is 6.8 degrees Celsius. Average temperature in January is -4.7 degrees Celsius and in July 17.8 degrees Celsius.
The Bialowieza forest was included in the UNESCO list, which included both the Polish and Byelorussian parts of the forest. It was also added to the World Heritage list. On the polish side the forest protected as the Bialowieza National Park. The Belarusian side is protected as the Belovezhskaya National Park. Not all of the area is protected, but many efforts are undertaken to preserve
all the area of the forest.
The coniferous forest cover 37% and wet decidious and mixed forests cover approximately 14.5% of the Bialowieza forest area.
Many species of Bryopyhtes and lichens might be spotted only in places where the forest preserved its primary nature, the system of natural conditions, and the absence of human influence enabled their survival. The presence of deadwood and stumps of old trees stands for the forest's uniqness and the degree of the preservation of the forests natural resources.
Peat bogs and meadows
Primary consumer -
Wood boring beetle larvea
Structures of the Ecosystem
From the 1300s to the 18th century the Bialowieza forest was declared as royal property. By the 18th century there were no other forests with bison. Occasional forest harvesting occurred during the 19th century. Post-World War I political chaos allowed excessive poaching that almost destroyed bison from their last natural forest range. Forest stands that were over 100 years old covered 23% of the forest. S supply of dead and downed wood secures availability of various habits for myriad organisms.
Makes branches and some trees fall -> returns nutrients back to the soil
Helps spread pollen
Some animals store food
Species- Eurasian bison
Mutualism- Cowbirds eat the parasites that may infest the bison. The cowbird gets a meal and the bison gets cleaned.
Habitat fragmentation, logging, hunting and poaching, disease, and hybridization threaten reintroduced herds.
Tolerance/ Limiting factors
Limiting factors-Fragmentation and isolation of free ranging (and captive) herds result in little to no exchange of genetic material.
Tolerance- Environmental changes
Harvesting of forests
European bison, Black Stork, Crane, White-backed Woodpecker, Lesser Spotted Eagle, Short- toed Eagle, Pygmy Owl, Tengmalm's Owl, Collard and Red- breasted Flycatcher, Black Grouse, Three- toed Woodpecker, Nutcracker, Capercaillie, and Spotted Eagle.
Renewable and nonrenewable resources
By: Janeel Naik
Birth rate- 9.6 per 1000
Death rate- 10.1 per 1000
birth rate- 11.6 per 1000
death rate- 13.7 per 1000