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Sociology of Schooling and Education

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Aysha Iqbal

on 20 December 2014

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Transcript of Sociology of Schooling and Education

Sociology of Schooling and Education
What is Education?

Education is simply one aspect of socialisation; it involves the acquisition of Knowledge and the learning of skills. Haralambos(2008).

“Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today.”
― Malcolm X

What does Education mean to you?
Functionalist Perspective the on Role of Education

Secondary Socialization -
(School act as a bridge between family and society as a whole, prepping them for adult role)

Durkheim: 'Essential similarities' - social solidarity - tied individuals to their societies - collective
Parsons: 'main provider of secondary socialization 'Particularistic/universalistic values Meritocracy - achieved rather than ascribed status

Role Allocation -
specialized division of labuor (Specialized skills and knowledge)
Skills Provision
Trained and Qualified Labuor Force
Hidden Curriculum; Positive force for developing learner's

The Conflict Approach

Althusser (1971):
Idological State Apparatus
- reproduction of ruling class ideology (false class consciousness) - Legitimises Class inequality through ideologies
"Education is not designed to develop human potential, but to limit it!"
Bowels and Gintis:
The Hidden Curriculum; Reveals the undeclared agenda of schooling.

Paul Willis (1977) - Learning to Labour 'Working Class kids get working class jobs'

The Consensus Approach
Schooling and Education
Education is one of the main institutions in society that has changed and developed over the past 100 years.
Different Theories and perspectives on Education

Significant Changes in the Education System

Processes and Structures within Schools
Symbolic interaction Perspective
Labelling theory was developed by Becker (1951) The study of teachers interaction with pupils. (Taylor 1999)

Self fulfilling prophecy
Labeled as a trouble maker by school teacher and living up to that label.

Halo effect - Damaging peoples self esteem
Setting and streaming
Symbolic Interaction Criticism

Marxist Perspective on the Role of Education
Functionalist Criticisms
According to Functionalists the Education System is positive and transmits societies norms and values.
Actually Education system is negative as transmits ruling class ideologies
Marxist argue
History teaching in schools mostly reflect white Middle class views
'Role Allocation' isnt Efficient
Evidence that equal opportunity in education doesnt exist.
Wrong (1961)- interactionist- Functionalists hold an 'oversocialised view' of people as puppets in society.
Marxists Criticisms
post Modernists criticise Bowels and Gintis- Education systems produce diversity not inequality
Fails to explain why pupils ever reject
school values
Morrow and Torres (1998) - Marxists take a 'class first' approach
MacDonald (1980)- Feminist
Ignore the fact that schools not only reproduce capitalism, but patriarchy

Streaming: Pupils are placed in a class on the basis of their general ability.

Setting: Pupils are placed in classes on the basis of their attainment in particular subjects.

"Children are not all of the same ability, nor do they learn at the same speed. That means 'setting' children in classes to maximise progress, for the benefit of high fliers and slow learners alike" (Haralambos 2008)
Margaret Fuller (1984)
Negative labels can have surprising or unfavorable effects.
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968)
Carried out an IQ test on students to show how a teacher's expectation affects their pupil's performance
Teachers encouragement and positive feedback produced a self-fulfilling prophecy

The Education Act of 1944
Free education was introduced by the Education Minister R.A Butler called "the Buttler Act". (Kirby 2000)

Tripartite system - Three types of schools
Grammar schools
Secondary modern Schools
Technical schools

Criticism of the tripartite system
Social class - Social divisions
Two third of boys from middle-class backgrounds went to grammar schools but only a quarter of working-class boys

11 Plus exam - Deciding your future at the age of 10.

Biased towards girls

The Comprehensive system 1965
The Comprehensive act was introduced after the failure of the Tripartite system.

One type of secondary school for everyone to attend
11+ Schools reduced
Each school has a specific catchment area
National Curriculum
The governments control over what teachers of England and Wales teach
The test were also used to access teachers and schools, to provide parents information about schools
Key Stage Test were provided to access parts
of the curriculum...
ages 7, 11 & 14
Feminists Perspectives on Education
Education Agent of Secondary Socialisation- Supresses Women

Main source of Conflict between sexes- Based on Sexual Hierachy (Males at the top, women at the botttom)

Patriachy; Mainatains and Reproduces Gender inequality
Criticisms of the Comprehensive System
Examination results
Social class division
Streaming and setting
Quality of facilities
Catchment area

Current changes in the Education system
Queen's speech (BBC News 2013) " new national curriculum is planned from 2014, which will apply to state-funded schools that are not academies."

"A key change will be that it will be compulsory for pupils in the older years of primary school to learn a language."

The changes it was bringing in would help students get a "real understanding of a subject and gain qualifications that command the respect of the best universities and employers",

A spokeswoman for the Department for Education said the government was "reforming the education system so that it is on a par with the world's best".
Each Sociological theory hold different views concerning the roles of Education.

Functionalists and Marxists hold complete opposing perspectives.
Funtionalist - Education System Positive

Marxist - Education system Negative

Feminists hold similar views to Marxists, yet argue that they fail to acknowledge the fact theat the education system reproduces Patriarchy aswell as Capitalism.
There has been a number of changes to the Education System
intended to improve the standards of what and how students are taught for example the problems with the Tripartite system led to the introducing of the Comprehensive system.

Michael Haralambos, Martin Holborn and Robin Heald (2004) HARALAMBOS AND HOLBORN SOCIOLOGY THEMES AND PERSPECTIVES, Sixth edition edn., 77-85 Fulham Palace Road, Hammersmith, London W6 8JB: HarperCollins Publishers Limited.

As Sociology of AQA (2nd Edition) – Chris, Livesey and Tony Lawson (P4) Pamela Abott & Claire Wallace. 1997 An introduction to Sociology.

Mark Kirby, Warren Kidd, Francine Koubel, John Barter, Tanya Hope, Alison Kirton, Nick Madry, Paul Manning & Karen Triggs. Sociology in Perspective AQA edition. 2000

The Sociology of gender Theoretical perspectives and Feminist Frameworks – Chapter 1
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