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Chapter 6 Music

COJO 1000 Intro to Mass Media University of Wyoming

Rebecca Roberts

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 6 Music

Chapter 6 Music
Technology and Music
Electrical recording
Radio broadcasting
Composers protected by copyright Act of 1911
American Association of Composers and Publishers collects license fees
Late 1800s - Sheet music
Early 1900s Opera, Tin pan alley
1920s Vaudeville and ragtime
Sheet music less popular
Radio and recordings grow
Music tailored to conform to tastes of a broad audience.
The Reciprocal Nature of Music
and Culture
Popular music
1940s - Technology Progresses
Reel to reel
Multitrack recording
Edison's Phonograph 1877
Wax cylinders
Berliner's Gramophone 1888 Flat discs

1950s - As television grows, radio turns to music to survive
Vinyl records
From 78 rpm
to 33 rpm LP
and 45 rpm for singles
Format radio - the top 40 format helped radio become a promotional tool for recordings
Payola - the illegal practice of paying DJs to play songs
1930s - Rise of jazz and blues

1940s - Big bands popular
Crooners like Frank Sinatra
1950s - Advent of Rock and Roll
Rythm and blues
Rock and Roll
Country music
1960s Rock Branches Out
British Invasion
Surf Music
Folk and folk rock
1970s - Disco
Glam Rock
1980s - The Hip Hop Generation

Pop music
Gangsta rap
Grunge - Alternative
Pop bands
2000s - Pop strong
Country crossover
Great migration -Mass exodus of rural southern black Americans into northern cities in the first half of the 20th century
Chicago blues – Electrified style of blues created in Chicago

Youth in 1950s had increased financial and personal freedom
Record companies marketed to them through radio, 45 rpm records, and television
Record sales skyrocketed from $189 million in 1951 to $600 million by 1959
Civil rights movement - 1950s-1960s
Folk music
Motown - success
In the 1950 large record companies feared losing profits to black independent labels
Hijacking – cost black artists royalties
Popularity of black musicians helped racial integration
Rock and roll denounced for its negative impact on morality in 1950s
Concerns about drug use in 1960s
Parents Music Resource Center pushes for labeling of music in 1980s
Artists such as Little Richard, David Bowie, Elton John and and Annie Lennox helped normalize androgyny in American culture.
The Music Industry
Major Record Labels
Global reach
Production, manufacture, and distribution
Marketing and promotion
RIAA - Recording Industry Association of America
Less risk - blockbusters - create pop music
Often sign independents most successsful artists
Vanity Labels - spin off indie labels of high profile artists backed financially by major labels.
Independent Labels
Operate without the financial backing of majors
Typically produce music that is less comercially viable, take more risk
In 50s, market share rose to 56%
Often lose successful talent to big labels
Respond to musical trends quickly
Niche markets, regional trends
Artists vision and creativity
Artist and repertoire agents - find and develops new artists with comercial potential
Performance royalties - received by songwriters and publishers when a song played on radio, TV, or film Collected by performing rghts organizations like ASCAP
Mechanical royalties - received when a song is reproduced by another artist
Artists royalties - received for every unit of music sold
Digital Technology Trends
Digital music intoduced in 1983 with Compact Disc
MP3 files -compressed digital audio files - 1989
Fanning creates Napster - a free centralized file sharing system in 1999
Big 4 labels and RIAA sued Napster for copyright infringement 1999
Napster shut down but new sites appear
Labels and RIAA begin suing individuals 2003
Labels missed an opportunity for digital distribution
Apple launches iTunes appliance and the iPod 2001
Apple signs deals with Big 4 and launches iTunes store 2003
Within 5 years top music retailer in US
Still Commands 70% of digital music market
Immediately replaced other formats
Changed the way profits are distributed among artists and labels -
Licensed use or retail sale
i-Tunes 99 cent download generates $0.30 for Apple $0.70 for record label, of which $0.09 goes to artist
Drastically reduced CD Sales
Unauthorized downloads about 90% of market
Album sales declining 8% per year since 2001
Music industry generating more revenue through licensing fees
The Internet advantageous for independent labels in promoting music through the direct to fan model.
Oligopoly - A few firms dominate an industry's production and distribution
The big four record labels - EMI, Sony Music, Universal Music Group, and Warner Music
Control over 85% of the US recording industry
Cultural influence on music
Youth culture
Racial integration
Music influence on Culture
Advantages of Major Labels
Evolution of Popular Music
1920s: Popular music threatened by technical developments
Advantages of Independent labels
Impacts of digital music technology
Digital Technology
Record Industry Response
Full transcript